Publications Archive

ILO ESAP 2: GRANULAR EXAMINATION OF THE INFORMAL ECONOMY IN NORTH MACEDONIA

ILO ESAP 2: GRANULAR EXAMINATION OF THE INFORMAL ECONOMY IN NORTH MACEDONIA

20 FEBRUARY 2024 | REPORT

Insights into informal workers, undeclared work and income under-reporting in households.

Download: EN 


ILO ESAP 2: An analysis of the legal framework regarding mediation of individual and collective labour disputes in Albania

ILO ESAP 2: An analysis of the legal framework regarding mediation of individual and collective labour disputes in Albania

20 DECEMBER 2023 | STUDY

An analysis of the legal framework regarding mediation of individual and collective labour disputes in Albania

Download: SQ 


ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in selected Central and Eastern European countries: Filling a gap in labour rights protection or trade union competition?

ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in selected Central and Eastern European countries: Filling a gap in labour rights protection or trade union competition?

10 DECEMBER 2023 | STUDY

This volume resulted from the discussions and research conducted within the Sub-regional Network of Labour Experts in CEE countries (CEELex). The work of CEELex has been undertaken under the Employment and Social Affairs Platform Project (ESAP) funded by the European Union.

Download: EN 


ILO ESAP 2: Data mining and machine learning: Supporting labour inspectorates to address undeclared work

ILO ESAP 2: Data mining and machine learning: Supporting labour inspectorates to address undeclared work

07 DECEMBER 2023 | STUDY

This paper was presented at the “8th Conference of the Regulating for Decent Work Network” on Ensuring decent work in times of uncertainty at the International Labour Office Geneva, Switzerland

Download: EN 


ILO ESAP 2: Summary of the Evaluation of Montenegro’s 2022 Minimum Wage and Income Tax Reform

ILO ESAP 2: Summary of the Evaluation of Montenegro’s 2022 Minimum Wage and Income Tax Reform

01 DECEMBER 2023 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

Summary of the Evaluation of Montenegro’s 2022 Minimum Wage and Income Tax Reform

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Aligning Western Balkan Labour Market Policy Databases with the EU Guidelines

RCC ESAP 2: Aligning Western Balkan Labour Market Policy Databases with the EU Guidelines

30 NOVEMBER 2023 | REPORT

The report Aligning Western Balkan Labour Market Policy Databases with the EU Guidelines offers a brief regional overview of current practices in the Western Balkans, as well as a comprehensive assessment of each economy’s practices, accompanied by data and recommendations that will help to advocate for labour market and social policy reforms to improve the employment opportunities and working conditions of citizens in the region, as well as enhancing the capacity of institutional stakeholders to align their practices in this area with the EU.

Download: EN 


ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in Montenegero

ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in Montenegero

16 NOVEMBER 2023 | AGREEMENT

ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in Montenegero

Download: EN 


ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in North Macedonia: Filling a gap in labour rights protection or trade union competition?

ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in North Macedonia: Filling a gap in labour rights protection or trade union competition?

14 NOVEMBER 2023 | REPORT

Workers’ representatives in North Macedonia: Filling a gap in labour rights protection or trade union competition?

Download: EN 


ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in Serbia: Filling a gap in labour rights protection or trade union competition?

ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in Serbia: Filling a gap in labour rights protection or trade union competition?

14 NOVEMBER 2023 | STUDY

This report delves into the overall state of industrial relations in the country, its socio-economic environment, the development of the trade union movement and the history of workers’ participation in Serbia.

Download: EN 


ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Filling a gap in labour rights protection or trade union competition?

ILO ESAP 2: Workers’ representatives in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Filling a gap in labour rights protection or trade union competition?

13 NOVEMBER 2023 | BOOK

This report will analyse the position of trade unions and works councils as worker representatives in accordance with the national legislation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Additionally, it will analyse the relationship between trade unions and works councils based on their powers and the possibilities of coordination in their work, as well as alternative action when coordination is not possible.

Download: EN 


ILO ESAP 2: An Evaluation of Montenegro’s 2022 Minimum Wage and Income Tax Reform

ILO ESAP 2: An Evaluation of Montenegro’s 2022 Minimum Wage and Income Tax Reform

26 OCTOBER 2023 | REPORT

Between 2018 and 2022, Montenegro introduced a series of significant policy reforms. The reforms affected economic, educational, and social policies, ranging from the introduction of a universal child allowance to major changes in its labour market regulations and tax rules. From an economic policy perspective, the most significant reform package was implemented in January 2022.

It was composed of a huge increase in Montenegro’s statutory minimum wage, alongside a new income tax regime and the abolishment of mandatory health insurance contributions. According to the Government, the reform package aimed at increasing the living standards of citizens and promoting a more sustainable and inclusive growth model.

This report evaluates the conjoint impact of this reform package.

Download: EN CG 


ILO ESAP 2: Reflections on the introduction of Universal Labour Guarantee in selected Central and Eastern European countries

ILO ESAP 2: Reflections on the introduction of Universal Labour Guarantee in selected Central and Eastern European countries

24 OCTOBER 2023 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

This publication is a result of the discussions and research conducted within the Sub-regional Network of Labour Experts in Central and Eastern European countries (CEELex). The work of CEELex has been undertaken under the Employment and Social Affairs
Platform Project (ESAP) funded by the European Union.

Download: EN SR 


ILO ESAP 2: Informal employment and undeclared work in the HORECA sector: Findings from North Macedonia

ILO ESAP 2: Informal employment and undeclared work in the HORECA sector: Findings from North Macedonia

25 SEPTEMBER 2023 | STUDY

The International Labour Organization (ILO) conducted an assessment of the motivations of workers, particularly young individuals, and employers in the Hotel, Restaurant, and Catering (HORECA) sector to participate in formal employment. This evaluation was based on the pilot intervention titled “Making Declared Work Attractive for Employers and Employees,” implemented in Ohrid and Struga by the Association of Hotel, Restaurants, and Cafés (HOTAM).

Download: MK EN 


European Network of Public Employment Services: Draft opinion paper A contribution to the European Year of Skills

European Network of Public Employment Services: Draft opinion paper A contribution to the European Year of Skills

07 JULY 2023 | REPORT

Amid the green and digital transitions, workers must have the right skills to adapt to a changing labour market. In the context of the European Year of Skills 2023, the European Network of Public Employment Services (PES Network) just released an opinion paper, promoting successful approaches, highlighting challenges and offering recommendations to address each of the European Year of Skills’ objectives.

A new opinion paper, adopted by members of the PES Network during the last PES Board Meeting in Stockholm on 8-9 June, 2023 aims to promote knowledge on successful approaches and point to challenges related to each of the European Year’s objectives. It also provides some recommendations on how PES and their partners can evolve and live up to the challenge, both in the short and longer run.

Download: EN 


EUROPEAN COMMISSION: Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2023

EUROPEAN COMMISSION: Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2023

07 JULY 2023 | REPORT

The European Commission - Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion has published its Employment and Social Developments in Europe (ESDE) report 2023.

The report reveals that despite the impact of Russia's invasion of Ukraine resulting in an economic slowdown in the second half of 2022, EU labour markets have demonstrated remarkable resilience in 2022. The EU economy grew by 3.5% in real terms in 2022. Employment rates were at a record high at 74.6% with 213.7 million people employed in 2022, and unemployment rates at a historic low at 6.2%.

However, challenges remain with a low labour market representation of certain groups, such as women or persons with a disability. Youth unemployment fell from 16.7% in 2021 to 14.5% in 2022, but remains a major challenge. In addition, companies face labour shortages and there is the need for both employers and workers to adapt to evolving skill needs, in the context of the green and digital transitions.

The share of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion remained stable at 21.6% in 2022 with social transfers reducing poverty by more than one third on average in the EU. However, real household income declined, as high inflation continued to erode purchasing power. This resulted in a rise in severe material and social deprivation (from 6.3% to 6.7%).

More information is available HERE.

Download: EN 


ILO's Strategic Compliance Planning in Action: Stories of Change

ILO's Strategic Compliance Planning in Action: Stories of Change

03 MAY 2023 | STUDY

The stories chronicle practical uses of the ILO’s Strategic Compliance Planning methodology to help labour inspectorates overcome limited resources and enforcement powers to achieve measurable improvements in labour law compliance for over 500,000 workers across 12 Member States.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights 2022

RCC ESAP 2: Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights 2022

28 APRIL 2023 | STUDY

This report analyses the progress of six Western Balkan economies (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia) regarding the 20 principles of the European Pillar of Social Rights (EPSR). The ‘2022 review of the performance of Western Balkan (WB) economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights’ has been conducted by the Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) programme implemented by the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) and funded by the European Union. It was produced by WINS Global Consult (Germany), on behalf of the RCC.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Albania

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Albania

28 APRIL 2023 | STUDY

Albania shows progress in almost all areas towards achieving the European standards related to the Social Rights Pillar during 2021-2022. Of particular importance is the fact that as the economy recovered and rebounded in 2021, economic inequality declined, access to the labour market improved, and the gender wage gap showed signs of narrowing. A new Strategy for Development and European Integration 2030 was adopted in 2022 to foster the integration in the region and the EU. Nevertheless, some challenges remain, especially in social sectors. Social spending in general remains low. Reasons include a limited coverage by the unemployment insurance programme as well as a limited scope of the social safety net (no guaranteed minimum income, no child or family benefits and limitations in access to health services). As a result, the percentage of population at-risk-of-poverty or social exclusion remains one of the highest in Europe.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Bosnia and Herzegovina

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Bosnia and Herzegovina

28 APRIL 2023 | STUDY

Bosnia and Herzegovina's overall progress towards the principles of the European Pillar of Social Rights remained rather modest in 2021-2022. Reforms move slowly due to the economy’s specific political structure that prolongs the design, agreement, and implementation of reforms. However, limited progress was made regarding social policy and employment. Challenges in employment, social inclusion and protection, and poverty reduction remain, the latter being intensified by the complex coordination processes among the responsible institutions across the economy. Although by law, equal access to the healthcare system is guaranteed to all citizens, in practice, accessibility of health care services is limited. The major improvements during the period under analysis are related to labour market and the overall economic development, reflected in an increased employment rate. However, youth unemployment remains high.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Kosovo*

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Kosovo*

28 APRIL 2023 | STUDY

Kosovo* showed modest progress towards reaching the European standards. The trend of economic recovery in 2022 has been coupled with progress in some indicators of the EPSR – particularly in terms of improvements in the formalisation of informal employment, strengthening the position of women in the labour market, decreasing NEET rates amongst youth, as well as in the unemployment rate compared to the previous year. However, some of these results may not be sustained considering the high level of outmigration that has continued in the last year. Additionally, Kosovo* has made progress in adopting laws in compliance with the EU Directives. Still, implementation remains very weak, especially for the labour force in the private sector. The key strategies for education, employment and social welfare have not yet reached the intended objectives.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Montenegro

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Montenegro

28 APRIL 2023 | STUDY

Montenegro experienced little progress towards social change in line with the Pillar indicators. Some improvements exist along with the persisting challenges. Poverty and social exclusion levels, despite decreasing, remain high, especially for children, persons with disabilities, older people, Roma, and Egyptian population, and for citizens of the Northern region. Positive changes include the increased coverage of children by preschool education, decline of early school leavers, and a slight decrease in the NEET rate. Nonetheless, a comprehensive strategy on education reform is missing. Due to substantial economic growth, the unemployment rate significantly decreased in 2022 compared to 2021 and 2020. Notwithstanding, challenges of long-term unemployment and youth unemployment remain.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regardinf the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 Review on North Macedonia

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regardinf the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 Review on North Macedonia

28 APRIL 2023 | STUDY

North Macedonia demonstrates some progress on the EU accession path, particularly through the conduction of legislation reforms and the expansion of the social safety net. While the latter was supported by an increased fiscal space due to the post-pandemic economic recovery, progress towards improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the system is still required. As a positive development on the level of strategy, the Revised Employment and Social Reform Programme 2022 provides a good example defining priority reforms and policies in the three priority areas of labour market and employment, human capital and skills, and social inclusion and social protection. Parallelly, the new Labour Law is under way, which will introduce regulations on new forms of employment such as online work and work from home. The successful implementation of the Youth Guarantee (YG) Programme, its positive experience, and lessons learnt can be shared in the region.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Serbia

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2022 review on Serbia

28 APRIL 2023 | STUDY

Serbia’s overall progress regarding the indicators is rather moderate. While performance in the fields of equal opportunities, fair working conditions, and social protection and inclusion remains below the EU average, progress in legislation is noticeable and largely carried out in line with the EU Acquis. For instance, the Law on Social Cards enacted in April 2022 is expected to reduce the at-risk-of-poverty rate. Furthermore, the Law of Social Entrepreneurship adapted in 2022 is expected to improve the situation on the labour market for vulnerable groups of population.

Download: EN 


Regional Peer Review Report of the Labour Inspectorates of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (entity Federation of BiH - Canton Sarajevo and entity Republika Srpska), Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia

Regional Peer Review Report of the Labour Inspectorates of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (entity Federation of BiH - Canton Sarajevo and entity Republika Srpska), Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia

11 APRIL 2023 | REPORT

The regional Peer Review Report of the Labour Inspectorates of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Entity Federation of BiH - Canton Sarajevo and Entity Republika Srpska), Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia contains a comparative summary of participating labour inspectorates' structures and functions, as well as findings, recommendations and conclusions of seven peer reviews carried out by labour inspectors within the framework of ESAP 2 a project implemented by the International Labour Organization and funded by the European Union.

Download: EN 


Guidelines for Reinforcing the Role of Labour Inspectors in Addressing Undeclared Work

Guidelines for Reinforcing the Role of Labour Inspectors in Addressing Undeclared Work

08 MARCH 2023 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

This review provides a brief description of the main recommendations set by the ILO for effective labour inspection to implement undeclared work strategies in this area.

Download: EN SQ BHS MK 


ETF Report: Key indicators on education, skills and employment 2022

ETF Report: Key indicators on education, skills and employment 2022

09 FEBRUARY 2023 | REPORT

This report provides, produced by European Training Foundation (ETF), the main findings and results from the 2022 collection of statistics on education, skills and employment in the ETF’s partner economies. In addition, it provides the results of some ETF new strands of work: youth transition and skills mismatch. A statistical snapshot enabling the EU’s candidate economies to reference themselves against the EU is also included, while the overview of data completes the report.

Download: EN 


Annual Newsletter

Annual Newsletter

18 JANUARY 2023 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

Annual Newsletter

Download: EN 


RCC: Women Entrepreneurship in the Western Balkans - economy factsheets

RCC: Women Entrepreneurship in the Western Balkans - economy factsheets

10 JANUARY 2023 | FACTSHEET

Gender statistics play an important role for evidence-based policy making in support of women entrepreneurship. Hence, a thorough review of gender statistics in the Western Balkans, with a specific focus on “women entrepreneurship”, has been commissioned by Regional Cooperation Council. In addition, a sector review for “women in agriculture” has enriched the insights and has been included considering the strategic importance of the agro-food sector in the Common Regional Market Action Plan’s value chains.
The findings will further contribute to the discussion and work of the Regional Network of Women in Entrepreneurship.
Here is what women entrepreneurship in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia looks like.

Download: EN EN EN EN EN EN 


ETF Publication: Embracing the digital age 
The future of work in the Western Balkans: New forms of employment and platform work

ETF Publication: Embracing the digital age The future of work in the Western Balkans: New forms of employment and platform work

15 DECEMBER 2022 | REPORT

Driven by social, economic and technological changes, labour markets are becoming more flexible in the European Union and its neighbourhing countries. This translates into growth in novel employment relationships, which differ from ‘traditional work’ in terms of working conditions, content, and regulatory and legal ramifications.

Conducted between November 2021 and May 2022, the ETF’s research focused on new forms of employment, including platform work, and the implications on youth employment policies and skills development. The analysis covered six Western Balkan economies, namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia.

Download: EN 


Eurofund-ETF Report: Living, working and COVID-19 in the European Union and 10 EU neighbouring countries

Eurofund-ETF Report: Living, working and COVID-19 in the European Union and 10 EU neighbouring countries

15 DECEMBER 2022 | REPORT

The Living, working and COVID-19 survey, first launched by Eurofound in early 2020, aims to capture the wide-ranging impact of the pandemic on the work and lives of EU citizens. The fifth round of the Eurofound survey, which was implemented in spring 2022, also sheds light on a new uncertain reality caused by the war in Ukraine, record-high inflation and sharp rises in the cost of living. As a pilot survey, a shorter version of the questionnaire was fielded by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in 10 European Union (EU) neighbouring countries (Albania, Georgia, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Moldova, Morocco, North Macedonia, Palestine and Tunisia). This joint Eurofound-ETF paper presents a selection of results from the survey covering both the EU-27 and the 10 selected EU neighbouring countries.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Regional Report on Western Balkans Public Employment Services (PES) Benchlearning Cycle 2022

RCC ESAP 2: Regional Report on Western Balkans Public Employment Services (PES) Benchlearning Cycle 2022

26 OCTOBER 2022 | REPORT

This PES Bench-learning Report is based on the results of the 2022 PES Bench-learning cycle in the Western Balkans (WB) facilitated by the he Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) in the framework of the Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP 2), a regional project financed by the European Commission and jointly implemented by the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) and the International
Labour Organisation (ILO) in Western Balkan economies.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Tirana 2022

RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Tirana 2022

26 OCTOBER 2022 | REPORT

This report is based on the results of the 2022 PES Bench-learning cycle in the Western Balkans facilitated by the RCC ESAP 2 project. Its main sources are the self-assessment completed by the PES according to an adapted structure of the EU PES Bench-learning exercise as well as a peer review conducted from 21-22 July in Tirana.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Services, Bosnia and Herzegovina

RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Services, Bosnia and Herzegovina

26 OCTOBER 2022 | REPORT

This report on the Public Employment Services (PES) of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is based on the results of the 2022 PES Bench-learning cycle in Western Balkans (WB) facilitated by the Regional Cooperation Council’s (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Pristina 2022

RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Pristina 2022

26 OCTOBER 2022 | REPORT

This report is based on the results of the PES Bench-learning in the Western Balkans facilitated by the RCC ESAP 2 project. Its main sources are the self-assessment completed by the PES according to an adapted structure of the EU PES Bench-learning exercise as well as a peer review conducted from 30 June to 1 July in Pristina.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Podgorica 2022

RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Podgorica 2022

26 OCTOBER 2022 | REPORT

This report is based on the results of the 2022 PES Bench-learning cycle in the Western Balkans facilitated by the RCC ESAP 2 project. Its main sources are the self-assessment completed by the PES according to an adapted structure of the EU PES Bench-learning exercise as well as a peer review conducted from 21-22 June 2022 in Podgorica.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Skopje 2022

RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Skopje 2022

26 OCTOBER 2022 | REPORT

This report is based on the results of the 2022 PES Bench-learning cycle in the Western Balkans facilitated by the RCC ESAP 2 project. Its main sources are the self-assessment completed by the PES according to an adapted structure of the EU PES Bench-learning exercise as well as a peer review conducted from 8-9 June 2022 in Ohrid.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Belgrade 2022

RCC ESAP 2: PES Bench-learning Report, Public Employment Service, Belgrade 2022

26 OCTOBER 2022 | REPORT

This report is based on the results of the 2022 PES Bench-learning cycle in the Western Balkans facilitated by the RCC ESAP 2 project. Its main sources are the self-assessment completed by the PES according to an adapted structure of the EU PES Bench-learning exercise as well as a peer review conducted from 8-9 September in Belgrade.

Download: EN 


Agenda of the study visit of high-level representatives of Albanian State Inspectorate of Labour and Social Services to the Hellenic Labour Inspectorate in Greece

Agenda of the study visit of high-level representatives of Albanian State Inspectorate of Labour and Social Services to the Hellenic Labour Inspectorate in Greece

09 AUGUST 2022 | MEETING DOCUMENT

Agenda of the study visit of high-level representatives of Albanian State Inspectorate of Labour and Social Services to the Hellenic Labour Inspectorate in Greece

Download: EN 


Employment and Social Developments in Europe - Young Europeans: employment and social challenges ahead

Employment and Social Developments in Europe - Young Europeans: employment and social challenges ahead

12 JULY 2022 | REPORT

The Commission has published the 2022 edition of the Employment and Social Developments in Europe (ESDE) review.
The new report helps identify and underpin the employment and social policies needed to address the challenges young people are facing to become economically independent, in the face of a worsening socio-economic situation due to Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Regional Comparative Report on Women’s Employment in Western Balkans

RCC ESAP 2: Regional Comparative Report on Women’s Employment in Western Balkans

01 JUNE 2022 | STUDY

The women’s participation in labour markets of the Western Balkan economies are characterised by low rates of activity, low employment, and high unemployment, especially for youth. The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected the entire society, but vulnerable groups have been particularly affected.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Albania

RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Albania

01 JUNE 2022 | STUDY

Action is needed on horizontal and vertical inclusion of gender indicators and statistics allowing for gender equity evaluations of labour market and entrepreneurship policies, ALMPs and employment promotion programs.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Bosnia and Herzegovina

RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Bosnia and Herzegovina

01 JUNE 2022 | STUDY

This study aims to present the state of play in the labour market in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), with particular emphasis on gender. The study focuses on gender gaps in the labour market.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Kosovo*

RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Kosovo*

01 JUNE 2022 | STUDY

The purpose of this study is to provide a gender analysis of the state of play of labour market in Kosovo*. More specifically, this report looks at key gaps between men and women in labour force participation and in employment, analyses employment sector segregation and the gender pay gap, as well as offers an analysis of policies and measures that impact the labour market, from a gender perspective.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Montenegro

RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Montenegro

01 JUNE 2022 | STUDY

The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the state of play in the labour market in Montenegro through gender lenses, considering some of the key gender gaps such as the gender gaps in employment, unemployment and pay, uneven gender participation across sectors.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for North Macedonia

RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for North Macedonia

01 JUNE 2022 | STUDY

In summary, the biggest challenge in the North Macedonian labour market is raising the participation rates of women, a path that can be followed with the adoption of expanded and retargeted active employment measures, gender-specific policies, and through the support of women’s entrepreneurship.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Serbia

RCC ESAP 2: Women Employment Study for Serbia

01 JUNE 2022 | STUDY

The purpose of the study is to provide a factual state of play of the labour market in Serbia through gender lenses, considering some of the key gender gaps such as the gender gaps in the labour market and the gender care gap and develop recommendations to reduce such gaps.

Download: EN 


Collective bargaining in North Macedonia - An Analysis

Collective bargaining in North Macedonia - An Analysis

18 MARCH 2022 | STUDY

Through Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP) 2, funded by the European Union, International Labour Organisation is proud to announce the publishing of An Analysis on Collective Bargaining in North Macedonia.

Download: MK EN 


Exploration of impact investment for skills creation - Existing actions, emerging trends, implementation modalities, best practice

Exploration of impact investment for skills creation - Existing actions, emerging trends, implementation modalities, best practice

10 MARCH 2022 | REPORT

Exploration of impact investment for skills creation - Existing actions, emerging trends, implementation modalities, best practice is a new, joint report of the Competence Centre on Technology Transfer at the Joint Research Centre, and the European Training Foundation.
This study was set up to provide an overview of impact investment and skills creation in the area of innovation, covering the main features of impact investment, the historical development of the phenomenon, and how it can be linked to the skills creation process.

Download: EN 


THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

03 MARCH 2022 | REPORT

Prior to the pandemic in 2020, the labour market in Bosnia and Herzegovina had shown signs of improvement with the unemployment rate, based on Labour Force Survey (LFS) data, reaching a historic low. As in the rest of the globe, COVID-19 outbreaks and the containment measures introduced by authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina have had an adverse impact on the labour market with a corresponding reduction in the number of employed.

Running business operations under the conditions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic involved a high level of uncertainty, which was not solely dependent on the situation locally but also on the regional and global situation.

Download: EN BHS 


Upotreba medijacije u radu sa slučajevima seksualnog uznemiravanja na radu

Upotreba medijacije u radu sa slučajevima seksualnog uznemiravanja na radu

23 FEBRUARY 2022 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

Prezentacija dr. Angele du Plesiss

Download: BHS 


Using Mediation to Deal with Sexual Harassment Cases at the Workplace

Using Mediation to Deal with Sexual Harassment Cases at the Workplace

23 FEBRUARY 2022 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

Presentation by Dr. Angela du Plesiss

Download: EN 


Analytical Report on the situation in the labour market of Serbia in the context of the economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic

Analytical Report on the situation in the labour market of Serbia in the context of the economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic

10 DECEMBER 2021 | REPORT

In order to better understand the mechanism behind changes on the labour market and changes of
persons’ status on the labour market from one quarter to another, the Report features a detailed analysis
of available quarterly Labour Force Survey (LFS) micro data from 2020.

Download: EN SR 


Impact Assessment of the Active Labour Market Measures in North Macedonia

Impact Assessment of the Active Labour Market Measures in North Macedonia

09 DECEMBER 2021 | REPORT

The aim of this report is to present the results from the impact evaluation of the selected active labour market policies and measures implemented in North Macedonia during the period 2018-2019. In addition, it contains a cost effectiveness analysis in order to assess in monetary terms the short-term outcomes from the ALMMs. The impact evaluation is a part of a general agenda of evidence-based policy making that focuses on redesigning the existing policies in order to achieve the best possible outcomes.

Download: EN MK 


Mapping innovative practices in the field of active labour market policies during the Covid-19 crisis

Mapping innovative practices in the field of active labour market policies during the Covid-19 crisis

28 OCTOBER 2021 | REPORT

The present report is part of a wider study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) and led by Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini on the topic of active labour market policies (ALMPs), labour market transition and skills development in ETF partner countries during the Covid-19 crisis.
Since the Covid-19 outbreak, the ETF has launched several new work strands to capture immediate developments and provide targeted advice or the sharing of innovative solutions in response to the impact of the pandemic. One strand covers socio-economic dynamics and the impact of Covid-19 on the labour market and policy responses in terms of the crisis, post-crisis and recovery phases, with a
focus on the role of ALMPs including skills development programmes.

Download: EN 


Assessment of the  Effectiveness of Active Labour Market Policies in Crisis and Post-crisis Situation

Assessment of the Effectiveness of Active Labour Market Policies in Crisis and Post-crisis Situation

28 OCTOBER 2021 | FACTSHEET

This is a summary of a report 'Mapping innovative practices in the field of active labour market policies during the Covid-19 crisis' by the European Training Foundation (ETF) that offers lessons on how Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) can be used to combat unemployment and improve human capital development during the pandemic-induced crisis and in light of trends such as climate change and digitalisation.

A crisis can help set the stage for innovation and redefinitions of policy objectives. The present period presents opportunities to experiment with a broad range of ALMPs and to accelerate their adoption or consolidate their implementation.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights 2021

RCC ESAP 2: Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights 2021

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

The overview report is written by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research (European Centre) Research as part of the project “An updated review of the performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights” within the framework of the Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project.
Each Western Balkan economy report provides an update on the progress regarding the principles of the European Pillar of Social Rights (EPSR). The European Commission launched the EPSR in 2017, consisting of a set of 20 social rights that have indicators for monitoring economies’ policy systems.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Serbia

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Serbia

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic created enormous challenges for the entire population of Serbia, threatening people’s health, jobs and living standards. Key political, economic, and social institutions found themselves under a prolonged strain to ensure that basic health and social services remain accessible, especially for vulnerable groups. The government’s proactive attitude toward the health crisis and financially impressive near-universal support to businesses and citizens alike certainly significantly cushioned the overall effects of the crisis.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on North Macedonia

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on North Macedonia

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

As elsewhere, the COVID-19 pandemic created large and unprecedented challenges for the government of North Macedonia in an array of policies and sectors. While it started as a health crisis which required policies and measures to protect the health of the citizens, it soon expanded in an economic crisis, affecting virtually all businesses and workers. The Government of North Macedonia implemented four packages of containment measures against COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 (70 measures in total) and two additional packages in 2021 (with additional 36 measures).

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Montenegro

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Montenegro

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

Montenegro’s performance against several indicators of the social scoreboard, designed to monitor the implementation of the European Pillar of Social Rights, remain relatively weak. Despite the fact that between 2017 and 2019 Montenegro achieved a high economic growth rate and a decrease in its unemployment rate, the employment rate remains low and long-term unemployment much is higher than in the EU. The situation got worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic, when the unemployment rate additionally grew, most affected were industries that Montenegro economy relies heavily on – tourism, construction and overall services.

Download: EN 


 RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Kosovo*

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Kosovo*

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

Like other economies, Kosovo* has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite policy support, the economic activity is estimated to have fallen 6 percent in 2020 (IMF, 2021). The fiscal deficit increased to 7.7 percent of GDP, given the large fall in tax revenues and the implementation of
mitigation and recovery measures of 4.2 percent of GDP (IMF 2021). Growth is expected to rebound in 2021 and real activity will most likely reach pre-pandemic levels only in 2022 (IMF, 2021; World Bank, 2021).

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Bosnia and Herzegovina

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Bosnia and Herzegovina

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

The COVID-19 crisis has heavily disrupted pre-pandemic trends and developments in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), thus further deteriorating the already weak performance of Bosnia and Herzegovina in majority of areas covered by the report. Modest improvements in the labour market trends recorded during the three-year period preceding the pandemic have been interrupted and, at least temporarily, reversed. Welfare outcomes have been also profoundly impacted by the crisis, with massive job losses, increased poverty, and limited access to public services.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Albania

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Albania

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

Before the onset of the COVID-19 crisis, Albania has recorded some improvement in the principles of the European Pillar of Social Rights, but its performance was overall relatively weak. The pandemic has massively affected Albania, and in particular the health and social sector. Hence, Albania is
facing the challenges of overcoming pre-existing and new challenges, with most of the social pillar indicators being worse-off than in the pre-crisis period.

Download: EN 


ETF Publication: CHANGING SKILLS FOR A CHANGING WORLD
Understanding skills demand in EU neighbouring countries

ETF Publication: CHANGING SKILLS FOR A CHANGING WORLD Understanding skills demand in EU neighbouring countries

08 SEPTEMBER 2021 | REPORT

While many studies on the effects of technological and societal changes on skills demand are undertaken in advanced (high-income) economies, there is little information or evidence that relates to developing and transition countries. This publication is part of ETF effort to enrich the intelligence on changing skills demands in its partner countries, generating new evidence and analysing and disseminating the existing data. The articles gathered here, written by researchers and experts from various countries neighbouring the European Union, document changes in the labour markets and/or skills demands – shifts in sectors, trends in job creation and destruction, emerging tasks and occupations, new patterns of employment and changing employment relations – of the countries reviewed. Emerging demands for new skills and occupations are also addressed.

The ETF hopes that the findings presented here will inspire further discussion and research to help those working in the fields of skills assessment and skills development processes to meet the needs of tomorrow’s labour markets, economies and societies.

Download: EN 


Social protection and inclusion policy responses to the COVID-19 crisis

Social protection and inclusion policy responses to the COVID-19 crisis

08 SEPTEMBER 2021 | REPORT

Social protection and inclusion policy responses to the COVID-19 crisis is a synthesis report produced by the European Social Policy Network (ESPN).
This ESPN report examines the (sub)national social protection and inclusion policy measures that European countries put in place to help address the social and financial distress created by the pandemic and by lockdown policies. It covers the 27 EU Member States, the 7 candidate and potential candidate economies, and the UK.

Download: EN 


Eurostat: Euro area unemployment at 7.6% in July 2021

Eurostat: Euro area unemployment at 7.6% in July 2021

01 SEPTEMBER 2021 | REPORT

In July 2021, the euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 7.6%, down from 7.8% in June 2021 and from 8.4% in July 2020. The EU unemployment rate was 6.9% in July 2021, down from 7.1% in June 2021 and from 7.6% in July 2020. These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

Download: EN 


2021 Economic Reform Programmes of Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina  and Kosovo*

2021 Economic Reform Programmes of Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo*

29 JULY 2021 | WORKING PAPER

The Commission’s Overview & Country Assessments

European Economy Institutional Papers are important reports analysing the economic situation and economic developments prepared by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, which serve to underpin economic policy-making by the European Commission, the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament.

Download: EN 


The Evaluation of Active Labour Market Policy in Montenegro

The Evaluation of Active Labour Market Policy in Montenegro

15 JULY 2021 | REPORT

There is a general agreement that unemployment is one of the most difficult economic and social problems for the community and its affected individuals. Unemployment is a loss of production and income, it causes high fiscal costs, contributes to a significant breakdown of human capital, and increases inequality in society because in crisis conditions the unemployed loose more than employees. For those affected, unemployment causes significant psychological burdens, leaving the impression of uselessness and hopelessness, and finally creates social exclusion. An active labour market policy can help to reduce the mismatch between supply and demand primarily by reducing occupational and spatial mismatches between supply and demand of the labour force and increasing labour market transparency. An active policy is not or should not be a set of universal employment measures aimed at all, but only to the most vulnerable.

Download: EN CG 


Synthesis paper: Stakeholder conference - “The power of PES partnerships”

Synthesis paper: Stakeholder conference - “The power of PES partnerships”

15 JULY 2021 | MEETING DOCUMENT

EUROPEAN NETWORK OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT SERVICES (PES) published a Synthesis paper from the Stakeholder conference “The power of PES partnerships” held in April 2021

Download: EN 


Western Balkans Declaration on ensuring sustainable labour market integration of young people

Western Balkans Declaration on ensuring sustainable labour market integration of young people

09 JULY 2021 | DECLARATION/DECISION

At a meeting with their EU counterparts held in Brdo Pri Kranju, Slovenia on 8 July 2021, the representatives of the Western Balkans committed to gradually establish, implement and enhance Youth Guarantee schemes.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

08 JULY 2021 | STUDY

Youth employment is an important policy priority for all governments in the Western Balkans. Along with general economic development, all economies have experienced a positive trend in youth employment creation in recent years. However, youth unemployment remains stubbornly high, while activity and employment rates are far below the levels seen in the EU, with a strong gender bias.
This study (2nd edition) presents a comparative analysis of the region’s youth labour markets. The Appendices to the study analyse the youth
labour markets and the policy responses in each of the Western Balkan economies.

Download: EN 


2021 Review: Employment and Social Developments in Europe

2021 Review: Employment and Social Developments in Europe

06 JULY 2021 | REPORT

The European Commission's services have published the 2021 edition of the Employment and Social Developments in Europe (ESDE) review.
The annual Employment and Social Developments in Europe review prepared by the Directorate-General of Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion provides up-to-date economic analysis of employment and social trends in Europe and discusses related policy options. It is the European Commission’s analytical flagship report in the area of employment and social affairs, mandated by Articles 151, 159 and 161 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
2021 edition of the ESDE review shows that the social impact of the COVID-19 crisis has been diverse.

Download: EN 


Eurostat Euro area unemployment at 7.9 % in May 2021

Eurostat Euro area unemployment at 7.9 % in May 2021

01 JULY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

In May 2021, the euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 7.9%, down from 8.1% in April 2021 and up from 7.5% in May 2020. The EU unemployment rate was 7.3% in May 2021, down from 7.4% in April 2021 and up from 6.9% in May 2020.
These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. Eurostat estimates that 15.278 million men and women in the EU, of whom 12.792 million in the euro area, were unemployed in May 2021. Compared with April 2021, the number of persons unemployed decreased by 382.000 in the EU and by 306.000 in the euro area. Compared with May 2020, unemployment rose by 949.000 in the EU and by 803.000 million in the euro area.

Download: EN 


Factsheet: Occupational safety and health in a changing world of work

Factsheet: Occupational safety and health in a changing world of work

28 JUNE 2021 | FACTSHEET

European Commission Factsheet: Occupational safety and health in a changing world of work
The COVID-19 pandemic has underlined the importance of health and safety at the workplace to
protect workers and for the continuity of critical services.
With the green and digital transitions, demographic shifts, and changes to the traditional workplace
set-up, it is time to ensure that occupational safety and health is fit for the future.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: DATA COLLECTION, SHARING AND ANALYSIS TO TACKLE UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

RCC ESAP 2: DATA COLLECTION, SHARING AND ANALYSIS TO TACKLE UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

18 JUNE 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

Collecting, sharing and analysing data can improve enforcement authority performance not only in detecting undeclared work but also preventing non-compliance. The aim of this toolkit is to support enforcement authorities in the Western Balkans to improve their knowledge and awareness of how to develop efficient databases to detect, prevent and predict undeclared work. The objectives of this toolkit are (i) to discuss the challenges faced around data collection, sharing and analysis and (ii) to offer tips on how data collection, sharing and analysis could be improved, not least by reporting good practices.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Labour Markets in the Western Balkans: 2019 and 2020

RCC ESAP 2: Labour Markets in the Western Balkans: 2019 and 2020

11 JUNE 2021 | REPORT

This Study analyses the situation in each of the six Western Balkan economies’ labour markets in 2019 and during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. It considers the factors that affect the region’s labour markets, the measures undertaken by governments to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and how these have affected labour market outcomes. It includes an analysis of the structure of the labour force, including employment and unemployment in general and that of particular groups, including youth, low-skilled workers, and women as well as the long-term unemployed and the informal economy. Additionally, factors related to economic and sectoral developments that have affected job losses and opportunities for job creation are considered.

Download: EN 


ILO: Occupational Safety and Health Profile-  Promoting decent work through strengthening occupational safety and health management and social dialogue in Kosovo*

ILO: Occupational Safety and Health Profile- Promoting decent work through strengthening occupational safety and health management and social dialogue in Kosovo*

04 JUNE 2021 | REPORT

Kosovo* Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Profile is an essential document in the application of a systematic approach towards OSH. It provides an overview and the most up-to-date information on the current OSH situation in an area. It is used to assess gaps in the OSH system and identify priority areas for action. This OSH Profile can serve as a useful source of information for policymakers, government officials, workers, employers, and OSH practitioners who aim to follow and monitor OSH developments, and that it can be used as the basis for formulating an improved OSH programme in Kosovo.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: IMPROVING SOCIAL PARTNER INVOLVEMENT IN TACKLING UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

RCC ESAP 2: IMPROVING SOCIAL PARTNER INVOLVEMENT IN TACKLING UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

31 MAY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

The aim of this toolkit is two-fold. Firstly, it sets out the steps that need to be taken by social partners and enforcement authorities in the Western Balkans to initiate, develop and manage cooperation with each other and build effective partnerships, along with examples of good practices of collaboration in the Western Balkans, European Union and beyond that are potentially transferable to all Western Balkan economies. Secondly, the aim is to set out the full range of policy initiatives that social partners can pursue to tackle undeclared work either on their own or in collaboration with enforcement authorities. Again, interesting policy initiatives pursued by social partners across the Western Balkans, European Union and beyond will be highlighted that are potentially transferable to all Western Balkan economies.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Youth & Jobs in the Western Balkans

RCC ESAP 2: Youth & Jobs in the Western Balkans

31 MAY 2021 | BROCHURE

Western Balkans - Youth & Jobs brochure captures key findings of the RCC's ESAP 2 Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans, portraying the position of the young people in the labour market in the six economies of the region.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Leaflet: Youth Guarantee in Western Balkans

RCC ESAP 2: Leaflet: Youth Guarantee in Western Balkans

31 MAY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

This leaflet aims at explaining the Youth Guarantee in EU and provide recommendations for its introduction and enhancement in the Western Balkans.

Download: EN SQ MK BS CG SR 


RCC ESAP 2 presents the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans: Key findings and recommendations

RCC ESAP 2 presents the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans: Key findings and recommendations

31 MAY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

The presentation covers the following topics: Youth labour markets; Key challenges; Youth employment policies in place; NEET policies and PES capacities; and Youth Guarantee(s)

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN SERBIA

RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN SERBIA

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex to the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkan outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Serbia, among which the lack of job opportunities, a lack of support for youth entrepreneurship, the prevalence of precarious employment of youth, poor educational provision and lack of infrastructure and teaching materials at secondary vocational education and training (VET) schools (attended by three quarters of upper secondary school pupils) leading to a mismatch of skills with labour market needs, and a revolving door of internships and a difficult transition from higher education to work of university graduates as well as the prevalence of informal channels of finding a job have been identified as key factors holding back the integration of young people into the labour market.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA

RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex to the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in North Macedonia. Although the youth unemployment rate has declined in recent years it remains elevated and many unemployed young people face long term unemployment, reflecting substantial skills mismatches. The youth labour market is also characterised by large gender gaps in labour market participation and employment, while the participation and employment rates are especially low for young people with a low level of education.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN MONTENEGRO

RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN MONTENEGRO

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex to the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Montenegro, among which lack of suitable jobs in the private sector, the lack of an entrepreneurial culture, the lack of appropriate skills held by young people, the preference for secure public sector jobs, and the perceptions of unfair recruitment practices have been identified as key factors holding back the integration of young people into the labour market.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN KOSOVO*

RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN KOSOVO*

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex of the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Kosovo*, among which the lack of job opportunities, weaknesses in the education system, widespread skill mismatches and skill gaps,lack of work experience of vocational education and training (VET) school and university graduates and lack of information about job vacancies have been identified as key factors holding back the integration of young people into the labour market.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex of the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Bosnia and Herzegovina, among which the fragmentation of the youth labour market and employment policy, pervasive skill mismatch, limited availability of part-time work opportunities for women, employment policies insufficiently targeted on youth and a limited provision of youth counselling services have been identified as key factors holding back integration of young people into the labour market. The youth labour market in Bosnia and Herzegovina is characterised by high level of youth unemployment, large gender gaps in labour market participation and employment, especially for the less well educated youth, and a high share of temporary jobs creating a precarious situation for young people.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN ALBANIA

RCC ESAP 2: STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN ALBANIA

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex to Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Albania, among which the lack of job opportunities in the private sector especially for highly educated young people, the consequent migration of young people and subsequent difficulties in integrating returning migrants into the labour market, weaknesses in the vocational training system at secondary school level, a high prevalence of self-employment and informality, and a high incidence of young people neitherin employment, nor in education or training (NEETs) have been identified as key factors creating difficulties in the youth labour market.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: COMPARATIVE REPORT ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

RCC ESAP 2: COMPARATIVE REPORT ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Study presents a comparative analysis of the region’s youth labour markets. The Section 2 analyses the key indicators of the youth labour market that are available from Eurostat, the Observatory on employment in the Western Balkans of the Regional Cooperation Council’s (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP 2) project, and Statistical Offices in the Western Balkan economies. Section 3 analyses and summarises the main youth employment measures adopted in each economy in comparative perspective and identifies the main challenges facing youth labour markets in each economy. Section 4 maps the NEET landscape using statistical data and proposes the design of appropriate policies to integrate nonregistered NEETs including tailored outreach mechanisms to identify and assist the most vulnerable NEET groups. Section 5 analyses the capacities of the public employmentservices (PES) in each economy to implement new youth employment measures. Section 6 discusses the key issues around introducing a form of Youth Guarantee in line with the EU ambition to assist in the further development of the region’s youth labour markets and wider economic performance. Section 7 presents brief conclusions.

Download: EN 


Non-standard forms of employment in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A critical glance into regulation and implementation

Non-standard forms of employment in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A critical glance into regulation and implementation

27 MAY 2021 | REPORT

Within the framework of the Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2, #ESAP2 , the International Labour Organization has published the volume “Non-standard forms of employment in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A critical glance into regulation and implementation”. This volume aims to offer a retrospective look into the implementation of some non-standard forms of employment (NSFE) in selected Central and Eastern European countries, including the Western Balkans. It captures independent critical views on national regulations and their enforcement of temporary and part-time work, temporary agency work, disguised employment relationships and “simplified” employment.

Download: EN 


Porto Social Commitment

Porto Social Commitment

07 MAY 2021 | DECLARATION/DECISION

EU leaders, European institutions, social partners and civil society representatives met in Porto on 7 May 2021 to reinforce their commitment to the implementation of the European Pillar of Social Rights. At the high-level conference organised by the Portuguese presidency in the context of the Porto Social Summit, they discussed how to set the European social policy agenda for the next decade and ensure that we face the challenges of the present and of the future leaving no one behind.

The discussions revolved around three main areas:
- work and employment
- skills and innovation
- welfare state and social protection
At the end of the conference, EU institutions, European social partners and civil society representatives co-signed the Porto Social Commitment.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Improving the Involvement of Social Partners in Tackling Undeclared work: A Learning Resource

RCC ESAP 2: Improving the Involvement of Social Partners in Tackling Undeclared work: A Learning Resource

05 MAY 2021 | REPORT

On 19th April 2021, the Western Balkan Network Tackling Undeclared Work held an online seminar that brought together representatives from enforcement authorities and social partners. The intention was to discuss and share understanding of the major challenges they face in pursuing greater cooperation and provide tips for other Western Balkan economies on how these challenges might be addressed. It was also an opportunity to explore the scope for greater cooperation and to share learning on the type of initiatives that social partners can pursue to protect legitimate businesses and workers by transforming undeclared work into declared work.
The aim of this learning resource is to summarise the discussion at the seminar. To do so, section 2 reports the discussion on the scope for greater cooperation between enforcement authorities and social partners, section 3 reports the discussion on the types of initiatives in which social partners could become more involved and section 4 the next steps that can be taken.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Tackling Undeclared Work in the Western Balkans: Improving the Range and Effectiveness of Sanction Tools

RCC ESAP 2: Tackling Undeclared Work in the Western Balkans: Improving the Range and Effectiveness of Sanction Tools

05 MAY 2021 | REPORT

The objective of this report is to enable Western Balkan enforcement authorities to share and deepen their understanding of:
• the effectiveness of using sanctions to tackle undeclared work, and
• the range of sanction tools available.
Most research finds that increasing the penalties does not decrease the likelihood of participation in undeclared work.

Download: EN 


European Network of Public Employment Services' (PES): NEWSLETTER, March 2021 issue

European Network of Public Employment Services' (PES): NEWSLETTER, March 2021 issue

22 APRIL 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

The PES Network Newsletter is intended to raise awareness of the work of the Network and disseminate learning resources to PES colleagues and other stakeholders. It is issued quarterly to highlight the latest publications, new items as well as forthcoming events.

Download: EN 


European Network of Public Employment Services: Assessment Report on PES Capacity

European Network of Public Employment Services: Assessment Report on PES Capacity

22 APRIL 2021 | REPORT

This 2020 Assessment Report on the Capacity of Public Employment Services (PES) provides an overview of the main trends in the development of PES, describing aspects of their capacity and the client services they offer. It provides an information base to support the work of the European PES Network. It is based on PES replies to the annual PES Capacity survey received from 27 PES in July and August 20201

Download: EN 


Economic Benefits of Gender Equality and Women Empowerment in the Western Balkans Six

Economic Benefits of Gender Equality and Women Empowerment in the Western Balkans Six

13 APRIL 2021 | STUDY

The purpose of this study is to shed light on the labour market situation of women in the WB6 economies, assess the economic benefits of women empowerment and provide recommendations for the way forward. Using gender disaggregated data, a comprehensive analysis of the current situation of gender equality and women empowerment in the WB was performed. The economic benefits of gender equality measures were estimated. A Women Empowerment Index (WEI) was developed to measure the economic empowerment of women in the WB6. The study also contains stocktaking and assessment of key policy areas and measures to reduce gender inequality and promote economic empowerment of women in the WB region.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: EVALUATING THE INVOLVEMENT OF  SOCIAL PARTNERS IN TACKLING UNDECLARED WORK IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

RCC ESAP 2: EVALUATING THE INVOLVEMENT OF SOCIAL PARTNERS IN TACKLING UNDECLARED WORK IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

10 MARCH 2021 | STUDY

This study reports the results of a survey of social partners undertaken in October 2020 to assess: their adoption of the objective of transforming undeclared work into declared work; the current level of involvement of social partners with government in relation to tackling undeclared work, and current range of policy initiatives social partners use to tackle undeclared work.

Download: EN 


European Commission's 2021 report on gender equality in the EU

European Commission's 2021 report on gender equality in the EU

05 MARCH 2021 | REPORT

One year ago, on 5 March 2020, the Commission adopted its Gender Equality Strategy 2020-2025. The strategy was the first deliverable on President von der Leyen’s commitment to a Union of Equality. It sets out an ambitious framework for the next 5 years, formally endorsed by the Commission, on how to advance gender equality in Europe and beyond. This is the first report under the new strategy. It takes stock of where the EU and its Member States stand on gender equality one year after the adoption of the Strategy. It

Download: EN 


THE EUROPEAN PILLAR OF SOCIAL RIGHTS ACTION PLAN

THE EUROPEAN PILLAR OF SOCIAL RIGHTS ACTION PLAN

04 MARCH 2021 | DECLARATION/DECISION

The 20 principles of the European Pillar of Social Rights are the beacon guiding us towards a strong Social Europe and set the vision for our new ‘social rulebook’. They express principles and rights essential for fair and well-functioning labour markets and welfare systems in 21st century Europe. Some principles reaffirm rights already present in the Union acquis; others set clear objectives for the path ahead as we address the challenges arising from societal, technological, and economic developments.

EU-level actions can complement national actions and this Action Plan is the Commission’s contribution to the implementation of the Social Pillar principles, in line with the calls from European Leaders and the European Parliament.

Download: EN 


EU Strategy for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2021-2030

EU Strategy for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2021-2030

03 MARCH 2021 | DECLARATION/DECISION

Union of Equality: Strategy for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2021-2030

The Strategy supports the green and digital transitions and a healthy Europe17, thus contributing to a sustainable, resilient, innovative, and fair Union. It is part of the European Pillar of Social Right Action plan adopted by the Commission. Complementing the equality strategies adopted to combat discrimination in all its forms, this Strategy will help to achieve a Union of Equality and to strengthen Europe’s role as a global partner in combatting inequalities, achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals18and promoting human rights.

Download: EN 


ETF: CHANGING SKILLS FOR A CHANGING WORLD

ETF: CHANGING SKILLS FOR A CHANGING WORLD

01 MARCH 2021 | INTERVIEW/ARTICLE

European Training Foundations (ETF): CHANGING SKILLS FOR A CHANGING WORLD
A collection of articles - Understanding skills demand in EU neighbouring countries
Against the background of significant global transformations, this publication aims to advance the debate on understanding skills demand in transition and developing countries.

While many studies on the effects of technological and societal changes on skills demand are undertaken in advanced (high-income) economies, there is little information or evidence that relates to developing and transition countries. This was one of the key findings of the ETF conference ‘Skills for the Future: Managing Transition’, held in November 2018. Since then, the ETF has launched a series of actions through its Skills Lab to enrich the intelligence on changing skills demands in its partner countries, generating new evidence and analysing and disseminating the existing data. This publication is part of that effort. Its particular focus is on high or low middle-income countries neighbouring the European Union (EU). The papers gathered here comprise 13 independent articles written by researchers and experts from various countries in response to a call for expression of interest that the ETF launched in 2019. The collection is by no means exhaustive of the research taking place in the ETF partner countries.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: RETHINKING THE FUTURE OBJECTIVES, ROLES AND COMPETENCIES OF INSPECTORATES AND INSPECTORS

RCC ESAP 2: RETHINKING THE FUTURE OBJECTIVES, ROLES AND COMPETENCIES OF INSPECTORATES AND INSPECTORS

07 DECEMBER 2020 | REPORT

Rethinking the future objectives, roles and competencies of inspectorates and inspectors report, by Colin C Williams, sets out the key issues involved in developing modern LIs and TAs in terms of capacity building, skills and competencies. The intention is to stimulate and structure thinking about the issues involved and the various options available, in terms of capacity building and developing skills and competencies, when modernising labour inspectorates and tax authorities.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: A HANDBOOK OF PREVENTATIVE APPROACHES TOWARDS UNDECLARED WORK

RCC ESAP 2: A HANDBOOK OF PREVENTATIVE APPROACHES TOWARDS UNDECLARED WORK

17 NOVEMBER 2020 | BOOK

The aim of this handbook is to provide a compendium of the range of preventative approaches for tackling undeclared work available to economies.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights

RCC ESAP 2: Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights

02 OCTOBER 2020 | REPORT

This comparative report draws on six individual economy reviews of the performance of each Western Balkan economy regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights. The Pillar encompasses 20 principles that serve as a reference for better working and living conditions across the areas of equal opportunities and access to the labour market, fair working conditions, and social protection and inclusion.

The Report was prepared under the overall guidance of the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) in the framework of the Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP 2) regional project, funded by the EU.

Download: EN 


COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. SERBIA

COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. SERBIA

01 SEPTEMBER 2020 | REPORT

The report “Covid-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses - Serbia” prepared by the ILO and EBRD assesses the effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the labour market during the lockdown phase and reflects on the measures proposed by the Government to attenuate the impact of the crisis. Policy recommendations can inform decisions by the Government and the social partners during the reactivation and recovery phases. This report offers policy recommendations for a more inclusive policy response and the next phase of crisis response.

Download: EN 


Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Serbia

Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Serbia

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Mihail Arandarenko in collaboration with ICF and the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in 2019. The updated report was written by Mihail Arandarenko in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on North Macedonia

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on North Macedonia

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Nikica Mojsoska-Blazevski in collaboration with the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in April 2019. The updated report was written by Nikica Mojsoska-Blazevski in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Montenegro

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Montenegro

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Vojin Golubovic in collaboration with ICF and the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in April 2019. This report was updated by Olivera Komar in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP2) project.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Kosovo*

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Kosovo*

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Ardiana Gashi & Amir Haxhikadrija in April 2019. This updated report was written by Ardiana Gashi in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on 
Bosnia & Herzegovina

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Bosnia & Herzegovina

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The initial report was written by Amar Numanović and Nikolina Obradović in August 2019.
This report was updated in 2020 by Amar Numanović from European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP2) project.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Albania

RCC ESAP 2: Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Albania

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Esmeralda Shehaj in collaboration with ICF and the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in April 2019. The updated report was written by Esmeralda Shehaj in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: DEVELOPING A HOLISTIC INTEGRATED STRATEGIC APPROACH TOWARDS UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

RCC ESAP 2: DEVELOPING A HOLISTIC INTEGRATED STRATEGIC APPROACH TOWARDS UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

17 JULY 2020 | REPORT

In many economies, a fragmented and uncoordinated approach exists across the multifarious government bodies responsible for tackling undeclared work and limited integration of social partners, as well as an incomplete range of policy measures used. The aim of this toolkit is to set out the steps required to develop a holistic integrated strategic approach towards undeclared work.

Download: EN 


RCC ESAP 2: COVID-19 AND UNDECLARED WORK in the Western Balkans: IMPACTS, CHALLENGES AND POLICY RESPONSES

RCC ESAP 2: COVID-19 AND UNDECLARED WORK in the Western Balkans: IMPACTS, CHALLENGES AND POLICY RESPONSES

01 JULY 2020 | STUDY

Report on the Western Balkan Network tackling undeclared work: COVID-19 AND UNDECLARED WORK: IMPACTS, CHALLENGES AND POLICY RESPONSES

Author: Colin C Williams

In early January 2020, a new strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) producing a respiratory disease (COVID-19) began spreading across the globe. On the 30th January 2020, the World Health Organisation declared a global health emergency and on 11th March a pandemic was confirmed. The impact on businesses and workers, as well as economies, has been profound. By April 2020, the closure of businesses to restrict movement and the spread of the virus had affected 81% of the global workforce (ILO, 2020a). This led to the cessation of not only declared work but also undeclared work.

Download: EN 


COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. MONTENEGRO

COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. MONTENEGRO

08 JUNE 2020 | REPORT

To assess the impact of the coronavirus crisis on the Western Balkans’ economies, the ILO Office for Central and Eastern Europe and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) established a task force. The EBRD/ILO Task Force produced the report “Covid-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses - Montenegro”. The evidence from this assessment shows that the lockdown measures had severe impacts on employment. The decline in working hours during the second quarter of 2020 is equivalent to the loss of 31,000 full-time jobs. In seven sectors, 36,000 jobs are at immediate risk, which could imply a loss of 15 percentage points in the employment rate. The report offers several policy options for the country for supporting enterprises, jobs and incomes during the reactivation phase.

Download: EN 


ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Serbia

ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Serbia

29 MAY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The ILO has developed informal economy country factsheets for select European countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia. These factsheets provide a statistical snapshot on the extent and composition of informal employment and effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the informal economy.

Download: EN 


ILO: Overview of the informal economy in North Macedonia

ILO: Overview of the informal economy in North Macedonia

29 MAY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The ILO has developed informal economy country factsheets for select European countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia. These factsheets provide a statistical snapshot on the extent and composition of informal employment and effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the informal economy.

Download: EN 


ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

29 MAY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The ILO has developed informal economy country factsheets for select European countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia. These factsheets provide a statistical snapshot on the extent and composition of informal employment and effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the informal economy.

Download: EN 


ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Albania

ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Albania

29 MAY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The ILO has developed informal economy country factsheets for select European countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia. These factsheets provide a statistical snapshot on the extent and composition of informal employment and effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the informal economy.

Download: EN 


COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. NORTH MACEDONIA

COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. NORTH MACEDONIA

15 MAY 2020 | REPORT

At the invitation of the Economic and Social Council in North Macedonia, the International Labour Organization and European Banks for Reconstruction and Development Task Force conducted the assessment “Covid-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses – North Macedonia”. The findings show that the decline in working hours during the second quarter of 2020 is equivalent to the loss of 85,550 full-time jobs. When gender and age-related vulnerabilities are taken into consideration, 49 per cent and 59 per cent of total employment falls within medium-high and high-vulnerability sectors, respectively. Nearly 62 per cent of all employers and non-employer enterprises in North Macedonia are in hard-hit sectors. Nine sectors that have been strongly affected by the crisis also display elevated labour vulnerabilities with 40,000 jobs at immediate risk. The report discusses many policy recommendations for the country and proposes measures and approaches that are likely to be effective as the situation caused by the Covid-19 crises is ameliorated.

Download: EN 


ESAP 1 - Key achievements

ESAP 1 - Key achievements

28 JANUARY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP), funded by the EU and implemented jointly by the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) and International Labour Organisation (ILO) in period from 2016 to 2019, supported the Western Balkan (WB) Six economies in labour market, employment and social policy reforms aimed at increasing employment opportunities for all across the region.

Under ESAP, the ILO has supported labour inspectorates, agencies for peaceful settlement of labour disputes, and ESCs with the aim to strengthen social dialogue, modernise labour inspection functions taking into consideration international labour standards and enhance alternative resolution of labour disputes.

The RCC, under ESAP, has enhanced institutional capacities of Public Employment Services (PES) and Ministries of Labour (MoL) for employment and labour market policy reviews through peer reviews; improved PES-to-PES dialogue by introducing benchlearning exercise for the first time ever in the region, based on the EU PES model; supported development of a holistic approach to tackling undeclared work in the region; and addressed partners’ small-scale demands in furthering their national employment and social reform agenda.

Download: EN 


ESAP PHASE 2: Transitioning into formality and decent work in the Western Balkans

ESAP PHASE 2: Transitioning into formality and decent work in the Western Balkans

28 JANUARY 2020 | BROCHURE

Informal employment and lack of social dialogue take centre stage among the key issues that need significant improvements
to meet the EU accession criteria. Against this background, Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP 2) – a project
implemented by the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) and International Labour Organisation (ILO), enters its second
phase (ESAP 2), consolidating the results achieved under its 1st phase and expanding to cover additional employment and
social policy topics of high relevance for Western Balkans.

Download: EN 


EUROSTAT: Key figures on enlargement countries — 2019 edition

EUROSTAT: Key figures on enlargement countries — 2019 edition

30 APRIL 2019 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

The 2019 edition of Key figures on enlargement countries presents up-to-date series of key statistical
data for five candidate countries and two potential candidates. The candidate countries, at the time
of writing, were: Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Turkey, while the potential
candidates were Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo* (this designation is without prejudice to
positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo
Declaration of Independence).

The tables, figures and associated commentary and methodological notes concern key social,
economic and environmental themes for which data are collected annually from the enlargement
countries through a series of harmonised questionnaires or as part of Eurostat’s regular collection of
data on demography, national accounts, international trade and energy statistics. Most tables and
figures in the publication are followed by data codes, which link directly to the associated tables within
Eurostat’s free dissemination database (Eurobase): the codes generally contain data for the European
Union (EU), the individual EU Member States, EFTA countries and in some cases for some or all of the
enlargement countries.

The document was produced by EUROSTAT and can be found at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-eurostat-news/-/WDN-20190523-1

Download: EN