Publications Archive

Mapping innovative practices in the field of active labour market policies during the Covid-19 crisis

Mapping innovative practices in the field of active labour market policies during the Covid-19 crisis

28 OCTOBER 2021 | REPORT

The present report is part of a wider study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) and led by Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini on the topic of active labour market policies (ALMPs), labour market transition and skills development in ETF partner countries during the Covid-19 crisis.
Since the Covid-19 outbreak, the ETF has launched several new work strands to capture immediate developments and provide targeted advice or the sharing of innovative solutions in response to the impact of the pandemic. One strand covers socio-economic dynamics and the impact of Covid-19 on the labour market and policy responses in terms of the crisis, post-crisis and recovery phases, with a
focus on the role of ALMPs including skills development programmes.

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Assessment of the  Effectiveness of Active Labour Market Policies in Crisis and Post-crisis Situation

Assessment of the Effectiveness of Active Labour Market Policies in Crisis and Post-crisis Situation

28 OCTOBER 2021 | FACTSHEET

This is a summary of a report 'Mapping innovative practices in the field of active labour market policies during the Covid-19 crisis' by the European Training Foundation (ETF) that offers lessons on how Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) can be used to combat unemployment and improve human capital development during the pandemic-induced crisis and in light of trends such as climate change and digitalisation.

A crisis can help set the stage for innovation and redefinitions of policy objectives. The present period presents opportunities to experiment with a broad range of ALMPs and to accelerate their adoption or consolidate their implementation.

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Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights 2021

Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights 2021

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

The overview report is written by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research (European Centre) Research as part of the project “An updated review of the performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights” within the framework of the Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project.
Each Western Balkan economy report provides an update on the progress regarding the principles of the European Pillar of Social Rights (EPSR). The European Commission launched the EPSR in 2017, consisting of a set of 20 social rights that have indicators for monitoring economies’ policy systems.

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Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Serbia

Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Serbia

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic created enormous challenges for the entire population of Serbia, threatening people’s health, jobs and living standards. Key political, economic, and social institutions found themselves under a prolonged strain to ensure that basic health and social services remain accessible, especially for vulnerable groups. The government’s proactive attitude toward the health crisis and financially impressive near-universal support to businesses and citizens alike certainly significantly cushioned the overall effects of the crisis.

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Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on North Macedonia

Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on North Macedonia

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

As elsewhere, the COVID-19 pandemic created large and unprecedented challenges for the government of North Macedonia in an array of policies and sectors. While it started as a health crisis which required policies and measures to protect the health of the citizens, it soon expanded in an economic crisis, affecting virtually all businesses and workers. The Government of North Macedonia implemented four packages of containment measures against COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 (70 measures in total) and two additional packages in 2021 (with additional 36 measures).

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Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Montenegro

Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Montenegro

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

Montenegro’s performance against several indicators of the social scoreboard, designed to monitor the implementation of the European Pillar of Social Rights, remain relatively weak. Despite the fact that between 2017 and 2019 Montenegro achieved a high economic growth rate and a decrease in its unemployment rate, the employment rate remains low and long-term unemployment much is higher than in the EU. The situation got worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic, when the unemployment rate additionally grew, most affected were industries that Montenegro economy relies heavily on – tourism, construction and overall services.

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 Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Kosovo*

Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Kosovo*

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

Like other economies, Kosovo* has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite policy support, the economic activity is estimated to have fallen 6 percent in 2020 (IMF, 2021). The fiscal deficit increased to 7.7 percent of GDP, given the large fall in tax revenues and the implementation of
mitigation and recovery measures of 4.2 percent of GDP (IMF 2021). Growth is expected to rebound in 2021 and real activity will most likely reach pre-pandemic levels only in 2022 (IMF, 2021; World Bank, 2021).

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Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Bosnia and Herzegovina

Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Bosnia and Herzegovina

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

The COVID-19 crisis has heavily disrupted pre-pandemic trends and developments in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), thus further deteriorating the already weak performance of Bosnia and Herzegovina in majority of areas covered by the report. Modest improvements in the labour market trends recorded during the three-year period preceding the pandemic have been interrupted and, at least temporarily, reversed. Welfare outcomes have been also profoundly impacted by the crisis, with massive job losses, increased poverty, and limited access to public services.

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Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Albania

Performance of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: 2021 review on Albania

11 OCTOBER 2021 | STUDY

Before the onset of the COVID-19 crisis, Albania has recorded some improvement in the principles of the European Pillar of Social Rights, but its performance was overall relatively weak. The pandemic has massively affected Albania, and in particular the health and social sector. Hence, Albania is
facing the challenges of overcoming pre-existing and new challenges, with most of the social pillar indicators being worse-off than in the pre-crisis period.

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Social protection and inclusion policy responses to the COVID-19 crisis

Social protection and inclusion policy responses to the COVID-19 crisis

08 SEPTEMBER 2021 | REPORT

Social protection and inclusion policy responses to the COVID-19 crisis is a synthesis report produced by the European Social Policy Network (ESPN).
This ESPN report examines the (sub)national social protection and inclusion policy measures that European countries put in place to help address the social and financial distress created by the pandemic and by lockdown policies. It covers the 27 EU Member States, the 7 candidate and potential candidate economies, and the UK.

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Eurostat: Euro area unemployment at 7.6% in July 2021

Eurostat: Euro area unemployment at 7.6% in July 2021

01 SEPTEMBER 2021 | REPORT

In July 2021, the euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 7.6%, down from 7.8% in June 2021 and from 8.4% in July 2020. The EU unemployment rate was 6.9% in July 2021, down from 7.1% in June 2021 and from 7.6% in July 2020. These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union

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2021 Economic Reform Programmes of Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina  and Kosovo*

2021 Economic Reform Programmes of Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo*

29 JULY 2021 | WORKING PAPER

The Commission’s Overview & Country Assessments

European Economy Institutional Papers are important reports analysing the economic situation and economic developments prepared by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, which serve to underpin economic policy-making by the European Commission, the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament.

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The Evaluation of Active Labour Market Policy in Montenegro

The Evaluation of Active Labour Market Policy in Montenegro

15 JULY 2021 | REPORT

There is a general agreement that unemployment is one of the most difficult economic and social problems for the community and its affected individuals. Unemployment is a loss of production and income, it causes high fiscal costs, contributes to a significant breakdown of human capital, and increases inequality in society because in crisis conditions the unemployed loose more than employees. For those affected, unemployment causes significant psychological burdens, leaving the impression of uselessness and hopelessness, and finally creates social exclusion. An active labour market policy can help to reduce the mismatch between supply and demand primarily by reducing occupational and spatial mismatches between supply and demand of the labour force and increasing labour market transparency. An active policy is not or should not be a set of universal employment measures aimed at all, but only to the most vulnerable.

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Synthesis paper: Stakeholder conference - “The power of PES partnerships”

Synthesis paper: Stakeholder conference - “The power of PES partnerships”

15 JULY 2021 | MEETING DOCUMENT

EUROPEAN NETWORK OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT SERVICES (PES) published a Synthesis paper from the Stakeholder conference “The power of PES partnerships” held in April 2021

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Western Balkans Declaration on ensuring sustainable labour market integration of young people

Western Balkans Declaration on ensuring sustainable labour market integration of young people

09 JULY 2021 | DECLARATION/DECISION

At a meeting with their EU counterparts held in Brdo Pri Kranju, Slovenia on 8 July 2021, the representatives of the Western Balkans committed to gradually establish, implement and enhance Youth Guarantee schemes.

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STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

08 JULY 2021 | STUDY

Youth employment is an important policy priority for all governments in the Western Balkans. Along with general economic development, all economies have experienced a positive trend in youth employment creation in recent years. However, youth unemployment remains stubbornly high, while activity and employment rates are far below the levels seen in the EU, with a strong gender bias.
This study (2nd edition) presents a comparative analysis of the region’s youth labour markets. The Appendices to the study analyse the youth
labour markets and the policy responses in each of the Western Balkan economies.

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2021 Review: Employment and Social Developments in Europe

2021 Review: Employment and Social Developments in Europe

06 JULY 2021 | REPORT

The European Commission's services have published the 2021 edition of the Employment and Social Developments in Europe (ESDE) review.
The annual Employment and Social Developments in Europe review prepared by the Directorate-General of Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion provides up-to-date economic analysis of employment and social trends in Europe and discusses related policy options. It is the European Commission’s analytical flagship report in the area of employment and social affairs, mandated by Articles 151, 159 and 161 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
2021 edition of the ESDE review shows that the social impact of the COVID-19 crisis has been diverse.

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Eurostat Euro area unemployment at 7.9 % in May 2021

Eurostat Euro area unemployment at 7.9 % in May 2021

01 JULY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

In May 2021, the euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 7.9%, down from 8.1% in April 2021 and up from 7.5% in May 2020. The EU unemployment rate was 7.3% in May 2021, down from 7.4% in April 2021 and up from 6.9% in May 2020.
These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. Eurostat estimates that 15.278 million men and women in the EU, of whom 12.792 million in the euro area, were unemployed in May 2021. Compared with April 2021, the number of persons unemployed decreased by 382.000 in the EU and by 306.000 in the euro area. Compared with May 2020, unemployment rose by 949.000 in the EU and by 803.000 million in the euro area.

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Factsheet: Occupational safety and health in a changing world of work

Factsheet: Occupational safety and health in a changing world of work

28 JUNE 2021 | FACTSHEET

European Commission Factsheet: Occupational safety and health in a changing world of work
The COVID-19 pandemic has underlined the importance of health and safety at the workplace to
protect workers and for the continuity of critical services.
With the green and digital transitions, demographic shifts, and changes to the traditional workplace
set-up, it is time to ensure that occupational safety and health is fit for the future.

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DATA COLLECTION, SHARING AND ANALYSIS TO TACKLE UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

DATA COLLECTION, SHARING AND ANALYSIS TO TACKLE UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

18 JUNE 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

Collecting, sharing and analysing data can improve enforcement authority performance not only in detecting undeclared work but also preventing non-compliance. The aim of this toolkit is to support enforcement authorities in the Western Balkans to improve their knowledge and awareness of how to develop efficient databases to detect, prevent and predict undeclared work. The objectives of this toolkit are (i) to discuss the challenges faced around data collection, sharing and analysis and (ii) to offer tips on how data collection, sharing and analysis could be improved, not least by reporting good practices.

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Labour Markets in the Western Balkans: 2019 and 2020

Labour Markets in the Western Balkans: 2019 and 2020

11 JUNE 2021 | REPORT

This Study analyses the situation in each of the six Western Balkan economies’ labour markets in 2019 and during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. It considers the factors that affect the region’s labour markets, the measures undertaken by governments to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and how these have affected labour market outcomes. It includes an analysis of the structure of the labour force, including employment and unemployment in general and that of particular groups, including youth, low-skilled workers, and women as well as the long-term unemployed and the informal economy. Additionally, factors related to economic and sectoral developments that have affected job losses and opportunities for job creation are considered.

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ILO: Occupational Safety and Health Profile-  Promoting decent work through strengthening occupational safety and health management and social dialogue in Kosovo*

ILO: Occupational Safety and Health Profile- Promoting decent work through strengthening occupational safety and health management and social dialogue in Kosovo*

04 JUNE 2021 | REPORT

Kosovo* Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Profile is an essential document in the application of a systematic approach towards OSH. It provides an overview and the most up-to-date information on the current OSH situation in an area. It is used to assess gaps in the OSH system and identify priority areas for action. This OSH Profile can serve as a useful source of information for policymakers, government officials, workers, employers, and OSH practitioners who aim to follow and monitor OSH developments, and that it can be used as the basis for formulating an improved OSH programme in Kosovo.

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IMPROVING SOCIAL PARTNER INVOLVEMENT IN TACKLING UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

IMPROVING SOCIAL PARTNER INVOLVEMENT IN TACKLING UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

31 MAY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

The aim of this toolkit is two-fold. Firstly, it sets out the steps that need to be taken by social partners and enforcement authorities in the Western Balkans to initiate, develop and manage cooperation with each other and build effective partnerships, along with examples of good practices of collaboration in the Western Balkans, European Union and beyond that are potentially transferable to all Western Balkan economies. Secondly, the aim is to set out the full range of policy initiatives that social partners can pursue to tackle undeclared work either on their own or in collaboration with enforcement authorities. Again, interesting policy initiatives pursued by social partners across the Western Balkans, European Union and beyond will be highlighted that are potentially transferable to all Western Balkan economies.

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Youth & Jobs in the Western Balkans

Youth & Jobs in the Western Balkans

31 MAY 2021 | BROCHURE

Western Balkans - Youth & Jobs brochure captures key findings of the RCC's ESAP 2 Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans, portraying the position of the young people in the labour market in the six economies of the region.

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Leaflet: Youth Guarantee in Western Balkans

Leaflet: Youth Guarantee in Western Balkans

31 MAY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

This leaflet aims at explaining the Youth Guarantee in EU and provide recommendations for its introduction and enhancement in the Western Balkans.

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RCC ESAP 2 presents the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans: Key findings and recommendations

RCC ESAP 2 presents the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans: Key findings and recommendations

31 MAY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

The presentation covers the following topics: Youth labour markets; Key challenges; Youth employment policies in place; NEET policies and PES capacities; and Youth Guarantee(s)

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STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN SERBIA

STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN SERBIA

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex to the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkan outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Serbia, among which the lack of job opportunities, a lack of support for youth entrepreneurship, the prevalence of precarious employment of youth, poor educational provision and lack of infrastructure and teaching materials at secondary vocational education and training (VET) schools (attended by three quarters of upper secondary school pupils) leading to a mismatch of skills with labour market needs, and a revolving door of internships and a difficult transition from higher education to work of university graduates as well as the prevalence of informal channels of finding a job have been identified as key factors holding back the integration of young people into the labour market.

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STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA

STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex to the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in North Macedonia. Although the youth unemployment rate has declined in recent years it remains elevated and many unemployed young people face long term unemployment, reflecting substantial skills mismatches. The youth labour market is also characterised by large gender gaps in labour market participation and employment, while the participation and employment rates are especially low for young people with a low level of education.

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STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN MONTENEGRO

STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN MONTENEGRO

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex to the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Montenegro, among which lack of suitable jobs in the private sector, the lack of an entrepreneurial culture, the lack of appropriate skills held by young people, the preference for secure public sector jobs, and the perceptions of unfair recruitment practices have been identified as key factors holding back the integration of young people into the labour market.

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STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN KOSOVO*

STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN KOSOVO*

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex of the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Kosovo*, among which the lack of job opportunities, weaknesses in the education system, widespread skill mismatches and skill gaps,lack of work experience of vocational education and training (VET) school and university graduates and lack of information about job vacancies have been identified as key factors holding back the integration of young people into the labour market.

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STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex of the Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Bosnia and Herzegovina, among which the fragmentation of the youth labour market and employment policy, pervasive skill mismatch, limited availability of part-time work opportunities for women, employment policies insufficiently targeted on youth and a limited provision of youth counselling services have been identified as key factors holding back integration of young people into the labour market. The youth labour market in Bosnia and Herzegovina is characterised by high level of youth unemployment, large gender gaps in labour market participation and employment, especially for the less well educated youth, and a high share of temporary jobs creating a precarious situation for young people.

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STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN ALBANIA

STUDY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN ALBANIA

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Annex to Study on Youth Employment in the Western Balkans outlines the nature and challenges of the youth labour market in Albania, among which the lack of job opportunities in the private sector especially for highly educated young people, the consequent migration of young people and subsequent difficulties in integrating returning migrants into the labour market, weaknesses in the vocational training system at secondary school level, a high prevalence of self-employment and informality, and a high incidence of young people neitherin employment, nor in education or training (NEETs) have been identified as key factors creating difficulties in the youth labour market.

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COMPARATIVE REPORT ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

COMPARATIVE REPORT ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

31 MAY 2021 | STUDY

This Study presents a comparative analysis of the region’s youth labour markets. The Section 2 analyses the key indicators of the youth labour market that are available from Eurostat, the Observatory on employment in the Western Balkans of the Regional Cooperation Council’s (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP 2) project, and Statistical Offices in the Western Balkan economies. Section 3 analyses and summarises the main youth employment measures adopted in each economy in comparative perspective and identifies the main challenges facing youth labour markets in each economy. Section 4 maps the NEET landscape using statistical data and proposes the design of appropriate policies to integrate nonregistered NEETs including tailored outreach mechanisms to identify and assist the most vulnerable NEET groups. Section 5 analyses the capacities of the public employmentservices (PES) in each economy to implement new youth employment measures. Section 6 discusses the key issues around introducing a form of Youth Guarantee in line with the EU ambition to assist in the further development of the region’s youth labour markets and wider economic performance. Section 7 presents brief conclusions.

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Non-standard forms of employment in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A critical glance into regulation and implementation

Non-standard forms of employment in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A critical glance into regulation and implementation

27 MAY 2021 | REPORT

Within the framework of the Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2, #ESAP2 , the International Labour Organization has published the volume “Non-standard forms of employment in selected countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A critical glance into regulation and implementation”. This volume aims to offer a retrospective look into the implementation of some non-standard forms of employment (NSFE) in selected Central and Eastern European countries, including the Western Balkans. It captures independent critical views on national regulations and their enforcement of temporary and part-time work, temporary agency work, disguised employment relationships and “simplified” employment.

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Porto Social Commitment

Porto Social Commitment

07 MAY 2021 | DECLARATION/DECISION

EU leaders, European institutions, social partners and civil society representatives met in Porto on 7 May 2021 to reinforce their commitment to the implementation of the European Pillar of Social Rights. At the high-level conference organised by the Portuguese presidency in the context of the Porto Social Summit, they discussed how to set the European social policy agenda for the next decade and ensure that we face the challenges of the present and of the future leaving no one behind.

The discussions revolved around three main areas:
- work and employment
- skills and innovation
- welfare state and social protection
At the end of the conference, EU institutions, European social partners and civil society representatives co-signed the Porto Social Commitment.

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Improving the Involvement of Social Partners in Tackling Undeclared work: A Learning Resource

Improving the Involvement of Social Partners in Tackling Undeclared work: A Learning Resource

05 MAY 2021 | REPORT

On 19th April 2021, the Western Balkan Network Tackling Undeclared Work held an online seminar that brought together representatives from enforcement authorities and social partners. The intention was to discuss and share understanding of the major challenges they face in pursuing greater cooperation and provide tips for other Western Balkan economies on how these challenges might be addressed. It was also an opportunity to explore the scope for greater cooperation and to share learning on the type of initiatives that social partners can pursue to protect legitimate businesses and workers by transforming undeclared work into declared work.
The aim of this learning resource is to summarise the discussion at the seminar. To do so, section 2 reports the discussion on the scope for greater cooperation between enforcement authorities and social partners, section 3 reports the discussion on the types of initiatives in which social partners could become more involved and section 4 the next steps that can be taken.

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Tackling Undeclared Work in the Western Balkans: Improving the Range and Effectiveness of Sanction Tools

Tackling Undeclared Work in the Western Balkans: Improving the Range and Effectiveness of Sanction Tools

05 MAY 2021 | REPORT

The objective of this report is to enable Western Balkan enforcement authorities to share and deepen their understanding of:
• the effectiveness of using sanctions to tackle undeclared work, and
• the range of sanction tools available.
Most research finds that increasing the penalties does not decrease the likelihood of participation in undeclared work.

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European Network of Public Employment Services' (PES): NEWSLETTER, March 2021 issue

European Network of Public Employment Services' (PES): NEWSLETTER, March 2021 issue

22 APRIL 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

The PES Network Newsletter is intended to raise awareness of the work of the Network and disseminate learning resources to PES colleagues and other stakeholders. It is issued quarterly to highlight the latest publications, new items as well as forthcoming events.

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European Network of Public Employment Services: Assessment Report on PES Capacity

European Network of Public Employment Services: Assessment Report on PES Capacity

22 APRIL 2021 | REPORT

This 2020 Assessment Report on the Capacity of Public Employment Services (PES) provides an overview of the main trends in the development of PES, describing aspects of their capacity and the client services they offer. It provides an information base to support the work of the European PES Network. It is based on PES replies to the annual PES Capacity survey received from 27 PES in July and August 20201

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Economic Benefits of Gender Equality and Women Empowerment in the Western Balkans Six

Economic Benefits of Gender Equality and Women Empowerment in the Western Balkans Six

13 APRIL 2021 | STUDY

The purpose of this study is to shed light on the labour market situation of women in the WB6 economies, assess the economic benefits of women empowerment and provide recommendations for the way forward. Using gender disaggregated data, a comprehensive analysis of the current situation of gender equality and women empowerment in the WB was performed. The economic benefits of gender equality measures were estimated. A Women Empowerment Index (WEI) was developed to measure the economic empowerment of women in the WB6. The study also contains stocktaking and assessment of key policy areas and measures to reduce gender inequality and promote economic empowerment of women in the WB region.

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EVALUATING THE INVOLVEMENT OF  SOCIAL PARTNERS IN TACKLING UNDECLARED WORK IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

EVALUATING THE INVOLVEMENT OF SOCIAL PARTNERS IN TACKLING UNDECLARED WORK IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

10 MARCH 2021 | STUDY

This study reports the results of a survey of social partners undertaken in October 2020 to assess: their adoption of the objective of transforming undeclared work into declared work; the current level of involvement of social partners with government in relation to tackling undeclared work, and current range of policy initiatives social partners use to tackle undeclared work.

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European Commission's 2021 report on gender equality in the EU

European Commission's 2021 report on gender equality in the EU

05 MARCH 2021 | REPORT

One year ago, on 5 March 2020, the Commission adopted its Gender Equality Strategy 2020-2025. The strategy was the first deliverable on President von der Leyen’s commitment to a Union of Equality. It sets out an ambitious framework for the next 5 years, formally endorsed by the Commission, on how to advance gender equality in Europe and beyond. This is the first report under the new strategy. It takes stock of where the EU and its Member States stand on gender equality one year after the adoption of the Strategy. It

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THE EUROPEAN PILLAR OF SOCIAL RIGHTS ACTION PLAN

THE EUROPEAN PILLAR OF SOCIAL RIGHTS ACTION PLAN

04 MARCH 2021 | DECLARATION/DECISION

The 20 principles of the European Pillar of Social Rights are the beacon guiding us towards a strong Social Europe and set the vision for our new ‘social rulebook’. They express principles and rights essential for fair and well-functioning labour markets and welfare systems in 21st century Europe. Some principles reaffirm rights already present in the Union acquis; others set clear objectives for the path ahead as we address the challenges arising from societal, technological, and economic developments.

EU-level actions can complement national actions and this Action Plan is the Commission’s contribution to the implementation of the Social Pillar principles, in line with the calls from European Leaders and the European Parliament.

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EU Strategy for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2021-2030

EU Strategy for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2021-2030

03 MARCH 2021 | DECLARATION/DECISION

Union of Equality: Strategy for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2021-2030

The Strategy supports the green and digital transitions and a healthy Europe17, thus contributing to a sustainable, resilient, innovative, and fair Union. It is part of the European Pillar of Social Right Action plan adopted by the Commission. Complementing the equality strategies adopted to combat discrimination in all its forms, this Strategy will help to achieve a Union of Equality and to strengthen Europe’s role as a global partner in combatting inequalities, achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals18and promoting human rights.

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ETF: CHANGING SKILLS FOR A CHANGING WORLD

ETF: CHANGING SKILLS FOR A CHANGING WORLD

01 MARCH 2021 | INTERVIEW/ARTICLE

European Training Foundations (ETF): CHANGING SKILLS FOR A CHANGING WORLD
A collection of articles - Understanding skills demand in EU neighbouring countries
Against the background of significant global transformations, this publication aims to advance the debate on understanding skills demand in transition and developing countries.

While many studies on the effects of technological and societal changes on skills demand are undertaken in advanced (high-income) economies, there is little information or evidence that relates to developing and transition countries. This was one of the key findings of the ETF conference ‘Skills for the Future: Managing Transition’, held in November 2018. Since then, the ETF has launched a series of actions through its Skills Lab to enrich the intelligence on changing skills demands in its partner countries, generating new evidence and analysing and disseminating the existing data. This publication is part of that effort. Its particular focus is on high or low middle-income countries neighbouring the European Union (EU). The papers gathered here comprise 13 independent articles written by researchers and experts from various countries in response to a call for expression of interest that the ETF launched in 2019. The collection is by no means exhaustive of the research taking place in the ETF partner countries.

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RETHINKING THE FUTURE OBJECTIVES, ROLES AND COMPETENCIES OF INSPECTORATES AND INSPECTORS

RETHINKING THE FUTURE OBJECTIVES, ROLES AND COMPETENCIES OF INSPECTORATES AND INSPECTORS

07 DECEMBER 2020 | REPORT

Rethinking the future objectives, roles and competencies of inspectorates and inspectors report, by Colin C Williams, sets out the key issues involved in developing modern LIs and TAs in terms of capacity building, skills and competencies. The intention is to stimulate and structure thinking about the issues involved and the various options available, in terms of capacity building and developing skills and competencies, when modernising labour inspectorates and tax authorities.

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A HANDBOOK OF PREVENTATIVE APPROACHES TOWARDS UNDECLARED WORK

A HANDBOOK OF PREVENTATIVE APPROACHES TOWARDS UNDECLARED WORK

17 NOVEMBER 2020 | BOOK

The aim of this handbook is to provide a compendium of the range of preventative approaches for tackling undeclared work available to economies.

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Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights

Regional Overview of Western Balkan Economies Regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights

02 OCTOBER 2020 | REPORT

This comparative report draws on six individual economy reviews of the performance of each Western Balkan economy regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights. The Pillar encompasses 20 principles that serve as a reference for better working and living conditions across the areas of equal opportunities and access to the labour market, fair working conditions, and social protection and inclusion.

The Report was prepared under the overall guidance of the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) in the framework of the Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP 2) regional project, funded by the EU.

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COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. SERBIA

COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. SERBIA

01 SEPTEMBER 2020 | REPORT

The report “Covid-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses - Serbia” prepared by the ILO and EBRD assesses the effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the labour market during the lockdown phase and reflects on the measures proposed by the Government to attenuate the impact of the crisis. Policy recommendations can inform decisions by the Government and the social partners during the reactivation and recovery phases. This report offers policy recommendations for a more inclusive policy response and the next phase of crisis response.

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Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Serbia

Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Serbia

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Mihail Arandarenko in collaboration with ICF and the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in 2019. The updated report was written by Mihail Arandarenko in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project.

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Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on North Macedonia

Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on North Macedonia

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Nikica Mojsoska-Blazevski in collaboration with the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in April 2019. The updated report was written by Nikica Mojsoska-Blazevski in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project.

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Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Montenegro

Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Montenegro

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Vojin Golubovic in collaboration with ICF and the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in April 2019. This report was updated by Olivera Komar in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP2) project.

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Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Kosovo*

Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Kosovo*

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Ardiana Gashi & Amir Haxhikadrija in April 2019. This updated report was written by Ardiana Gashi in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project

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Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on 
Bosnia & Herzegovina

Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Bosnia & Herzegovina

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The initial report was written by Amar Numanović and Nikolina Obradović in August 2019.
This report was updated in 2020 by Amar Numanović from European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP2) project.

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Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Albania

Performance of Western Balkan economies regarding the European Pillar of Social Rights: Updated review on Albania

31 AUGUST 2020 | REPORT

The original report was written by Esmeralda Shehaj in collaboration with ICF and the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research in April 2019. The updated report was written by Esmeralda Shehaj in 2020, in the framework of the Regional Cooperation Council's (RCC) Employment and Social Affairs Platform 2 (ESAP 2) project.

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DEVELOPING A HOLISTIC INTEGRATED STRATEGIC APPROACH TOWARDS UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

DEVELOPING A HOLISTIC INTEGRATED STRATEGIC APPROACH TOWARDS UNDECLARED WORK: A TOOLKIT

17 JULY 2020 | REPORT

In many economies, a fragmented and uncoordinated approach exists across the multifarious government bodies responsible for tackling undeclared work and limited integration of social partners, as well as an incomplete range of policy measures used. The aim of this toolkit is to set out the steps required to develop a holistic integrated strategic approach towards undeclared work.

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COVID-19 AND UNDECLARED WORK in the Western Balkans: IMPACTS, CHALLENGES AND POLICY RESPONSES

COVID-19 AND UNDECLARED WORK in the Western Balkans: IMPACTS, CHALLENGES AND POLICY RESPONSES

01 JULY 2020 | STUDY

Report on the Western Balkan Network tackling undeclared work: COVID-19 AND UNDECLARED WORK: IMPACTS, CHALLENGES AND POLICY RESPONSES

Author: Colin C Williams

In early January 2020, a new strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) producing a respiratory disease (COVID-19) began spreading across the globe. On the 30th January 2020, the World Health Organisation declared a global health emergency and on 11th March a pandemic was confirmed. The impact on businesses and workers, as well as economies, has been profound. By April 2020, the closure of businesses to restrict movement and the spread of the virus had affected 81% of the global workforce (ILO, 2020a). This led to the cessation of not only declared work but also undeclared work.

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COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. MONTENEGRO

COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. MONTENEGRO

08 JUNE 2020 | REPORT

To assess the impact of the coronavirus crisis on the Western Balkans’ economies, the ILO Office for Central and Eastern Europe and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) established a task force. The EBRD/ILO Task Force produced the report “Covid-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses - Montenegro”. The evidence from this assessment shows that the lockdown measures had severe impacts on employment. The decline in working hours during the second quarter of 2020 is equivalent to the loss of 31,000 full-time jobs. In seven sectors, 36,000 jobs are at immediate risk, which could imply a loss of 15 percentage points in the employment rate. The report offers several policy options for the country for supporting enterprises, jobs and incomes during the reactivation phase.

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ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Serbia

ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Serbia

29 MAY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The ILO has developed informal economy country factsheets for select European countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia. These factsheets provide a statistical snapshot on the extent and composition of informal employment and effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the informal economy.

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ILO: Overview of the informal economy in North Macedonia

ILO: Overview of the informal economy in North Macedonia

29 MAY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The ILO has developed informal economy country factsheets for select European countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia. These factsheets provide a statistical snapshot on the extent and composition of informal employment and effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the informal economy.

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ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

29 MAY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The ILO has developed informal economy country factsheets for select European countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia. These factsheets provide a statistical snapshot on the extent and composition of informal employment and effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the informal economy.

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ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Albania

ILO: Overview of the informal economy in Albania

29 MAY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The ILO has developed informal economy country factsheets for select European countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia. These factsheets provide a statistical snapshot on the extent and composition of informal employment and effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the informal economy.

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COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. NORTH MACEDONIA

COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. NORTH MACEDONIA

15 MAY 2020 | REPORT

At the invitation of the Economic and Social Council in North Macedonia, the International Labour Organization and European Banks for Reconstruction and Development Task Force conducted the assessment “Covid-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses – North Macedonia”. The findings show that the decline in working hours during the second quarter of 2020 is equivalent to the loss of 85,550 full-time jobs. When gender and age-related vulnerabilities are taken into consideration, 49 per cent and 59 per cent of total employment falls within medium-high and high-vulnerability sectors, respectively. Nearly 62 per cent of all employers and non-employer enterprises in North Macedonia are in hard-hit sectors. Nine sectors that have been strongly affected by the crisis also display elevated labour vulnerabilities with 40,000 jobs at immediate risk. The report discusses many policy recommendations for the country and proposes measures and approaches that are likely to be effective as the situation caused by the Covid-19 crises is ameliorated.

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ESAP 1 - Key achievements

ESAP 1 - Key achievements

28 JANUARY 2020 | FACTSHEET

The Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP), funded by the EU and implemented jointly by the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) and International Labour Organisation (ILO) in period from 2016 to 2019, supported the Western Balkan (WB) Six economies in labour market, employment and social policy reforms aimed at increasing employment opportunities for all across the region.

Under ESAP, the ILO has supported labour inspectorates, agencies for peaceful settlement of labour disputes, and ESCs with the aim to strengthen social dialogue, modernise labour inspection functions taking into consideration international labour standards and enhance alternative resolution of labour disputes.

The RCC, under ESAP, has enhanced institutional capacities of Public Employment Services (PES) and Ministries of Labour (MoL) for employment and labour market policy reviews through peer reviews; improved PES-to-PES dialogue by introducing benchlearning exercise for the first time ever in the region, based on the EU PES model; supported development of a holistic approach to tackling undeclared work in the region; and addressed partners’ small-scale demands in furthering their national employment and social reform agenda.

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ESAP PHASE 2: Transitioning into formality and decent work in the Western Balkans

ESAP PHASE 2: Transitioning into formality and decent work in the Western Balkans

28 JANUARY 2020 | BROCHURE

Informal employment and lack of social dialogue take centre stage among the key issues that need significant improvements
to meet the EU accession criteria. Against this background, Employment and Social Affairs Platform (ESAP 2) – a project
implemented by the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) and International Labour Organisation (ILO), enters its second
phase (ESAP 2), consolidating the results achieved under its 1st phase and expanding to cover additional employment and
social policy topics of high relevance for Western Balkans.

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EUROSTAT: Key figures on enlargement countries — 2019 edition

EUROSTAT: Key figures on enlargement countries — 2019 edition

30 APRIL 2019 | INFORMATION MATERIAL

The 2019 edition of Key figures on enlargement countries presents up-to-date series of key statistical
data for five candidate countries and two potential candidates. The candidate countries, at the time
of writing, were: Montenegro, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Turkey, while the potential
candidates were Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo* (this designation is without prejudice to
positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo
Declaration of Independence).

The tables, figures and associated commentary and methodological notes concern key social,
economic and environmental themes for which data are collected annually from the enlargement
countries through a series of harmonised questionnaires or as part of Eurostat’s regular collection of
data on demography, national accounts, international trade and energy statistics. Most tables and
figures in the publication are followed by data codes, which link directly to the associated tables within
Eurostat’s free dissemination database (Eurobase): the codes generally contain data for the European
Union (EU), the individual EU Member States, EFTA countries and in some cases for some or all of the
enlargement countries.

The document was produced by EUROSTAT and can be found at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-eurostat-news/-/WDN-20190523-1

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