- Publications & Research
Publications & Research Archive
08 SEPTEMBER 2021 | REPORT
Social protection and inclusion policy responses to the COVID-19 crisis is a synthesis report produced by the European Social Policy Network (ESPN).
This ESPN report examines the (sub)national social protection and inclusion policy measures that European countries put in place to help address the social and financial distress created by the pandemic and by lockdown policies. It covers the 27 EU Member States, the 7 candidate and potential candidate economies, and the UK.
01 SEPTEMBER 2021 | REPORT
In July 2021, the euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 7.6%, down from 7.8% in June 2021 and from 8.4% in July 2020. The EU unemployment rate was 6.9% in July 2021, down from 7.1% in June 2021 and from 7.6% in July 2020. These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
2021 Economic Reform Programmes of Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo*
29 JULY 2021 | WORKING PAPER
The Commission’s Overview & Country Assessments
European Economy Institutional Papers are important reports analysing the economic situation and economic developments prepared by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, which serve to underpin economic policy-making by the European Commission, the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament.
08 JULY 2021 | STUDY
Youth employment is an important policy priority for all governments in the Western Balkans. Along with general economic development, all economies have experienced a positive trend in youth employment creation in recent years. However, youth unemployment remains stubbornly high, while activity and employment rates are far below the levels seen in the EU, with a strong gender bias.
This study (2nd edition) presents a comparative analysis of the region’s youth labour markets. The Appendices to the study analyse the youth
labour markets and the policy responses in each of the Western Balkan economies.
06 JULY 2021 | REPORT
The European Commission's services have published the 2021 edition of the Employment and Social Developments in Europe (ESDE) review.
The annual Employment and Social Developments in Europe review prepared by the Directorate-General of Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion provides up-to-date economic analysis of employment and social trends in Europe and discusses related policy options. It is the European Commission’s analytical flagship report in the area of employment and social affairs, mandated by Articles 151, 159 and 161 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).
2021 edition of the ESDE review shows that the social impact of the COVID-19 crisis has been diverse.
01 JULY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL
In May 2021, the euro area seasonally-adjusted unemployment rate was 7.9%, down from 8.1% in April 2021 and up from 7.5% in May 2020. The EU unemployment rate was 7.3% in May 2021, down from 7.4% in April 2021 and up from 6.9% in May 2020.
These figures are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. Eurostat estimates that 15.278 million men and women in the EU, of whom 12.792 million in the euro area, were unemployed in May 2021. Compared with April 2021, the number of persons unemployed decreased by 382.000 in the EU and by 306.000 in the euro area. Compared with May 2020, unemployment rose by 949.000 in the EU and by 803.000 million in the euro area.
13 APRIL 2021 | STUDY
The purpose of this study is to shed light on the labour market situation of women in the WB6 economies, assess the economic benefits of women empowerment and provide recommendations for the way forward. Using gender disaggregated data, a comprehensive analysis of the current situation of gender equality and women empowerment in the WB was performed. The economic benefits of gender equality measures were estimated. A Women Empowerment Index (WEI) was developed to measure the economic empowerment of women in the WB6. The study also contains stocktaking and assessment of key policy areas and measures to reduce gender inequality and promote economic empowerment of women in the WB region.
05 MARCH 2021 | REPORT
One year ago, on 5 March 2020, the Commission adopted its Gender Equality Strategy 2020-2025. The strategy was the first deliverable on President von der Leyen’s commitment to a Union of Equality. It sets out an ambitious framework for the next 5 years, formally endorsed by the Commission, on how to advance gender equality in Europe and beyond. This is the first report under the new strategy. It takes stock of where the EU and its Member States stand on gender equality one year after the adoption of the Strategy. It
01 MARCH 2021 | INTERVIEW/ARTICLE
European Training Foundations (ETF): CHANGING SKILLS FOR A CHANGING WORLD
A collection of articles - Understanding skills demand in EU neighbouring countries
Against the background of significant global transformations, this publication aims to advance the debate on understanding skills demand in transition and developing countries.
While many studies on the effects of technological and societal changes on skills demand are undertaken in advanced (high-income) economies, there is little information or evidence that relates to developing and transition countries. This was one of the key findings of the ETF conference ‘Skills for the Future: Managing Transition’, held in November 2018. Since then, the ETF has launched a series of actions through its Skills Lab to enrich the intelligence on changing skills demands in its partner countries, generating new evidence and analysing and disseminating the existing data. This publication is part of that effort. Its particular focus is on high or low middle-income countries neighbouring the European Union (EU). The papers gathered here comprise 13 independent articles written by researchers and experts from various countries in response to a call for expression of interest that the ETF launched in 2019. The collection is by no means exhaustive of the research taking place in the ETF partner countries.
19 FEBRUARY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL
This article describes the methodology of the European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) from the year 2021 onwards. It gives information on the labour force status and on the main indicators derived from it.
After its update planned for February 2021, this article will also provide specific information on the other concepts and definitions the labour force status is grounded on, the references to the variables available in the EU-LFS datasets and the classifications used in the EU-LFS. Furthermore, it will present the national questionnaires developed by the participating countries to collect the EU-LFS data.
08 FEBRUARY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL
The Employment Outlook 2020 outlines some of the critical decisions that countries will have to make. Decisions on how, and at what speed, to manage a return to economic and social activity, while keeping workers safe. Decisions on how to scale back job retention schemes without prematurely removing support where it is still needed. Decisions on how to adapt emergency support programmes for self-employed workers and businesses, especially small ones, as economic activity picks up, given that some viable businesses in the most impacted sectors may continue to face restrictions and/or low demand.
28 JANUARY 2021 | INFORMATION MATERIAL
The table provides a comprehensive overview of measures announced or taken in the Member States so far. The measures (which are not exhaustive) outlined here are happening in a fast-changing environment and are subject to being changed and updated/amended. As high uncertainty continues to surround the outcome of the crisis, the final outturns in terms of costings may differ
Socio-economic policy responses to COVID-19 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Portugal and Kosovo*
26 JANUARY 2021 | REPORT
Seven new Flash Reports prepared by the European Social Policy Network (ESPN) are now available and offer updated information on social policy initiatives taken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Latvia, Portugal and Kosovo* within the context of COVID-19.
25 JANUARY 2021 | REPORT
The disruptive effects of the COVID-19 crisis on the Western Balkan economies subsided somewhat in the third quarter of 2020, when the region’s GDP fell by 4.5% y-o- y, after a slump of 9.3% in the preceding quarter. Investment recovered and recorded y-o- y growth in some countries, while the fall in household consumption and exports was less pronounced than in the previous three months.
European Economy Technical Papers are reports and data compiled by the staff of the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs.
Skills support for Women’s Entrepreneurship to achieve more inclusive and prosperous societies by European Training Foundation (ETF)
18 JANUARY 2021 | STUDY
Empowerment of women and girls is one of the crucial elements of the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 and a key contributor to economic growth and development. Many women, both in the European Union and in its neighbouring countries still face economic, legislative and social barriers to entering the labour market, entrepreneurship and self-employment despite studies that prove that the contribution of women’s employment and their participation in business creation and management are significant contributors to corporate growth and national competitiveness.
01 DECEMBER 2020 | SURVEY
The Serbian Association of Employers (SAE) with technical support from the International Labour Organization (ILO) and in partnership with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) conducted a survey to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the activity of enter-prises in Serbia. A total of 462 enterprises responded to the survey, out of which 400 responses were completed and included in the analysis of the results.
01 DECEMBER 2020 | SURVEY
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures have caused significant losses and disruptions to the Albanian business sector, which was still recovering after the devastating consequences of the earthquake of November 2019.BiznesAlbania, with the technical support of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and in partnership with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), conducted an enterprise survey to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the activity of enterprises in Albania
24 NOVEMBER 2020 | REPORT
The COVID-19 pandemic hit the six Western Balkans1(WB6) amidst a reacceleration of economic activity and promising economic outlook for 2020 (EC, 2020)2. With the rapid spreading of the coronavirus in the Western Balkans, governments introduced measures to protect their fragile health systems by purchasing medical equipment and medicine, converting medical centres to specialised COVID-19 centres and concert and sport arenas to temporary field hospitals, increasing the salaries of medical staff, and changing the work hours to safeguard the medical staff. In addition, governments responded with lockdowns and partial shutdowns in the second half of March, resulting in the closure of airports and borders, educational institutions, restaurants and shops, bans on large gatherings, restrictions on domestic travel, and the instatement of curfews. These containment measures and external shock are expected to result in a notable contraction across the region. The Western Balkan economies are particularly affected through several channels
Common Regional Market -A catalyst for deeper regional economic integration and a stepping stone towards EU Single Market
10 NOVEMBER 2020 | SITE
The leaders of the Western Balkans Six, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia, endorsed the Common Regional Market (CRM) 2021-2024 Action Plan at the Berlin Process Summit held on 10 November, 2020 in Sofia.
Health and safety at work in the COVID-19 pandemic: A key to reviving the labour market and the economy
22 OCTOBER 2020 | INFORMATION MATERIAL
The ILO has been supporting its constituents in the region since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic to ensure health and safety at the workplace. Without the protection of workers, the recovery of the economy cannot be possible.
22 OCTOBER 2020 | REPORT
A semi-annual report on recent economic developments and economic policies in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia). The report analyzes the economic performance and outlook for the Western Balkans and specific factors that affect the region’s development. This edition looks at the economic and social impact of COVID-19 on the region and the prospects for recovery amid uncertainty.
20 OCTOBER 2020 | REPORT
This second Global Deal Flagship Report illustrates the importance of social dialogue in managing the consequences of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, as well as the benefits of involving social partners in adult-learning systems to prepare for the future of work.
07 OCTOBER 2020 | REPORT
The COVID-19 pandemic has sunk the global economy into the deepest recession in eight decades. In the emerging and developing countries of Europe and Central Asia, GDP is expected to contract 4.4 percent in 2020. This update summarizes recent developments and presents the outlook for the region. The report also focuses on human capital, an area that requires serious attention given the severe impact of the pandemic on health and education.
06 OCTOBER 2020 | SITE
On 6 October 2020 European Commission adopted a comprehensive Economic and Investment Plan for the Western Balkans, which aims to spur the long-term economic recovery of the region, support a green and digital transition, foster regional integration and convergence with the European Union.
The Economic and Investment Plan sets out a substantial investment package mobilising up to €9 billion of funding for the region. It will support sustainable connectivity, human capital, competitiveness and inclusive growth, and the twin green and digital transition.
23 SEPTEMBER 2020 | REPORT
Updated estimates and analysis
COVID-19 and the World of Work - Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses SERBIA
02 SEPTEMBER 2020 | REPORT
Serbia went for the biggest Covid-19 response package in the Western Balkans to retain jobs and to protect incomes. The new report shows how many and which jobs are at risk. The publication also assesses the welfare effects of the government interventions and provides policy recommendations.
01 AUGUST 2020 | SURVEY
In an environment of uncertainty with little official data on the extent of business losses and disruptions to Macedonian enterprises, a joint survey was launched by the Organisation of Employers of Macedonia (OEM) and Business Confederation of Macedonia (BCM) with support from the International Labour Organization (ILO), and in collaboration with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). The aim was to collect evidence on the effects of the pandemic on enterprises’ operations and viability, as well as to identify relevant support measures that would be most beneficial for enterprises to overcome the cris
01 JULY 2020 | STUDY
Report on the Western Balkan Network tackling undeclared work: COVID-19 AND UNDECLARED WORK: IMPACTS, CHALLENGES AND POLICY RESPONSES
Author: Colin C Williams
Disclaimer: This document has been prepared for the Regional Cooperation Council and reflects only the views of the author. The Regional Cooperation Council cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained herein.
COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses MONTENEGRO
25 JUNE 2020 | REPORT
The report provides evidence that show that the lockdown measures had severe impacts on employment. It offers six policy options for the country for supporting enterprises, jobs and incomes during the reactivation phase.
24 JUNE 2020 | SURVEY
Following the annual issue of the Balkan Barometer survey, the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) initiated additional analysis to observe more closely sentiments and perceptions of the general public and the business community in the context of recent developments deriving from COVID-19. In this respect, RCC engaged in data collection and data processing as a basis for snap-shot analysis of the attitudes, experiences and perceptions on the recent developments in six economies.
COVID-19 and the World of Work: Rapid Assessment of the Employment Impacts and Policy Responses. NORTH MACEDONIA
28 MAY 2020 | REPORT
The report provides evidence that show that the lockdown measures had severe impacts on employment. It offers eleven policy recommendations for the country and suggests steps to introduce as coronavirus emergency measures are being eased.
15 APRIL 2020 | REPORT
More than 16,000 people have tested positive for COVID-19 in the South East Europe (SEE) region as of 14 April. As the number of coronavirus cases continues to grow rapidly in SEE, governments have been gradually announcing states of emergency, lockdowns and partial shutdowns to contain the spread of the virus. Coronavirus measures resulted in suspendedflights, partial border closures, domestic travel restrictions and school shutdowns across the region. Government authorities banned large gatherings and imposed travel restrictions. Serbia and North Macedonia have cancelled their respective general elections scheduled for April.
09 APRIL 2020 | REPORT
In February 2020, the coronavirus outbreak interrupted the recovery that was underway in the Europe and Central Asia region earlier in the year. Given the rapidly evolving situation, this update summarizes the recent developments and growth outlook for the region under different scenarios regarding the outbreak. Although the magnitudes are uncertain, the pandemic is likely to derail the near-term outlook by interrupting daily activity, putting further downward pressure on commodity prices, disrupting tightly linked global and regional supply chains, reducing travel and tourist arrivals, and decreasing demand for exports from economies in the region. There are trade-offs between the health benefits of policies to slow down the spread of the disease and the economic costs of these actions. During these difficult times, it is important for policy makers to act decisively to save lives and invest in their public health systems; but also minimize the economic cost by strengthening the safety net for the most vulnerable; supporting the private sector through short-term credit, tax breaks, or subsidies; and being prepared to lower interest rates and inject liquidity to restore financial stability and boost confidence.
01 APRIL 2020 | REPORT
The global COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken by governments around the world constitute a major rupture to the “business as usual”, and this includes the Western Balkans, too. The pandemic has been overshadowing other developments while also accelerating existing trends, and itwill continue to do so. This analysis establishes the COVID-19 pandemic as a critical juncture, a crisis that can permanently shake up institutions and societies.
01 APRIL 2020 | REPORT
In Spring 2020, Western Balkan countries—like most others in the world—have been forced to impose tight restrictions on economic life to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. In the first half of 2020, the world has seen explosive growth of infections with the deadly novel virus. As country after country has been forced to shut down large areas of social and economic life to slow contagion, the Western Balkans have not been spared.
01 APRIL 2020 | REPORT
This report is the result of collaboration between the World Bank and the Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw). The team comprised Stefanie Brodmann and Gonzalo Reyes (co-task team leaders, World Bank), Hermine Vidovic (lead author main report, wiiw), Sara Johansson de Silva, Alicia Marguerie, Jamele Rigolini (lead authors of special topic, World Bank), Calogero Brancatelli (World Bank), Olga Kupets (World Bank), and Sandra Leitner (wiiw). Monika Schwarzhappel (wiiw) together with Galina Vasaros (wiiw) compiled the regionally comparable database on labor market outcomes and the statistical annex. Goran Paunovic (wiiw) has created and completely redesigned the online graphical user interface. Beate Muck (wiiw) was responsible for the production of graphs. Michaela Bönisch (wiiw) formatted the publication, Clive Liddiard provided editorial support and Carey Jett was responsible for final editing.